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Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis. There are over 200 different types of cancer, each with its own methods of diagnosis and treatment.
Cancer (malignant neoplasm) is a class of disease. There are malignancy properties that cancer cells have;
1. The diseased tissue grows uncontrollably, ignoring growth arrest signals,
2. The cells can invade and destroy adjacent tissues
3. Cells can metastize, spreading to other regions of the body
The causes of cancer can be hereditary (5-10% of cancers) or due to environmental factors (old age, lifestyle choices, tobacco use, dietary choices, obesity, infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants). The changes in the cancer cell tip the balance of cell division and apoptosis in favor of cell division. This balance is normally maintained by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
Cancer is a common condition. In 2009, 320,467 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in the UK. More than one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime.
In the UK, the most common types of cancer are:
Each specific type of cancer has its own set of treatment methods. However, many cases of cancer are treated using chemotherapy (powerful cancer-killing medication) and radiotherapy (the controlled use of high energy X-rays). Surgery is also sometimes carried out to remove cancerous tissue.
|Johnson & Johnson||5.1||4.0|
|Merck & Co||1.0||2.8|
Note * Market share based on revenue from prescribed and OTC products. Values for 2020 are projections.
Published by Evaluate
Publication date June 2014
Original source EvaluatePharma - World Preview 2014, Outlook to 2020, page 19
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