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Cancer Research

22:16 EDT 19th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Fetal microchimerism in human brain tumors.

Sex differences in cancer incidence and survival, including central nervous system tumors, are well documented. Multiple mechanisms contribute to sex differences in health and disease. Recently, the presence of fetal-in-maternal microchimeric cells has been shown to have prognostic significance in breast and colorectal cancers. The frequency and potential role of these cells has not been investiga...

Effects of individual and partner factors on anxiety and depression in Taiwanese prostate cancer patients: A longitudinal study.

Studies exploring the mediating and predictive factors of anxiety and depression for prostate cancer patients in Eastern countries are scant. Guided by the transactional model of stress and coping, this study determined the predictors and mediators of anxiety and depression in prostate cancer patients. The participants comprised 115 prostate cancer patients and 91 partners. The patients and partne...

Three shades of grey: detecting brain abnormalities in children with autism by using Source-, Voxel- and Surface-based Morphometry.

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to young...

A rapid review of needs assessment tools for post-treatment cancer survivors.

Relevant, comprehensive and psychometrically rigorous needs assessment tools are needed to ensure appropriate care is delivered to cancer survivors who have completed treatment. The aim of this rapid review was to identify and describe needs assessment tools that are used in cancer survivors post-treatment, assess their psychometric properties and describe their use in clinical care. The electroni...

5-HTTLPR moderates the association between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats.

While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cu...

Cancer-specific mortality of high-risk prostate cancer after carbon-ion radiotherapy plus long-term androgen deprivation therapy.

The treatment outcomes of patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer (PC) after carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (LTADT) were analyzed, and compared with those of other treatment modalities, focusing on PC-specific mortality (PCSM). A total of 1247 patients were enrolled in three phase II clinical trials of fixed-dose CIRT between 2000 and ...

Re: A paradigm shift in the origin of ovarian cancer: the ovary is no longer to blame: Is the ovary to blame for tubal carcinoma?

Initial testing (stage 1) of M6620 (formerly VX-970), a novel ATR inhibitor, alone and combined with cisplatin and melphalan, by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program.

M6620 is a novel inhibitor of the DNA damage repair enzyme ATR, and has potentiated the activity of cisplatin and irinotecan in non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer xenografts, respectively.

Early blood stream infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a risk factor for acute grade III-IV GVHD in children and adolescents.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In adults, early blood stream infection (BSI) and acute GVHD (AGVHD) have been reported to be related. The impact of BSI on risk for AGVHD, however, has not been assessed in pediatric patients.

Comprehensive genetic analysis of donor cell derived leukemia with KMT2A rearrangement.

Donor cell leukemia (DCL) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Several mechanisms, including occult leukemic/preleukemic subclones in the donor graft and germline predisposition to leukemia, are proposed to be associated with DCL's molecular pathogenesis. We report a comprehensive genetic analysis of a patient with KMT2A-rearranged DCL after allogeneic bone marrow trans...

Blinatumomab activity in a patient with Down syndrome B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) after consolidation may indicate chemotherapy insensitivity in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Given the strong association of MRD and outcome in non-Down syndrome (non-DS) BP-ALL, it is likely that MRD levels are also of prognostic significance in DS BP-ALL. We report here the successful use of blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager ...

Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis on the Relative Efficacy of Osteoporotic Medications: Men with Prostate Cancer on Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy to Reduce Risk of Fragility Fractures.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer, but loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is a major risk factor for fractures. This analysis evaluated the relative effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments using BMD as a surrogate endpoint for fragility fractures in men on continuous ADT.

The miR-203 inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of non-small cell lung cancer by downregulating RGS17.

The involvement of the RGS17 oncogene in promotion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported, but the regulation mechanism in NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression, and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand the role of microRNAs in RGS17-induced NSCLC, we showed that miR-203 was downregulated during tumorigenes...

Reply to comment on: Insurance coverage decisions for pediatric proton therapy.

Hepatoblastoma in children aged less than six months at diagnosis: A report from the SIOPEL group.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival of children, who were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma (HB) in their first 6 months of age, enrolled in the SIOPEL 2 and 3 protocols.

In a randomized trial in prostate cancer patients, dietary protein restriction modifies markers of leptin and insulin signaling in plasma extracellular vesicles.

Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hyperleptinemia are associated with aging and age-associated diseases including prostate cancer. One experimental approach to inhibit tumor growth is to reduce dietary protein intake and hence levels of circulating amino acids. Dietary protein restriction (PR) increases insulin sensitivity and suppresses prostate cancer cell tumor growth in animal models, providing...

Potential proton and photon dose degradation in advanced head and neck cancer patients by intratherapy changes.

Evaluation of dose degradation by anatomic changes for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) relative to intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) and identification of potential indicators for IMPT treatment plan adaptation.

Detection and delineation of squamous neoplasia with hyperspectral imaging in a mouse model of tongue carcinogenesis.

yperspectral imaging (HSI) holds the potential for the noninvasive detection of cancers. Oral cancers are often diagnosed at a late stage when treatment is less effective and the mortality and morbidity rates are high. Early detection of oral cancer is, therefore, crucial in order to improve the clinical outcomes. To investigate the potential of HSI as a non-invasive diagnostic tool, an animal stu...

N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) particles as doxorubicin carriers: A comparison between release behavior of physically-loaded drug and conjugated drug via acid-labile hydrazone linkage.

N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA)-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles with low degree of crosslinking were synthesized using distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP). Size and size distribution of particles were obtained using DLS and FE-SEM and results showed that microspheres had a narrow size dispersity. (1) H NMR results indicated that amount of crosslinker in structure of ...

Prospective comparison of transperineal MRI/ultrasound-fusion biopsy and transrectal systematic biopsy in biopsy-naïve patients.

To evaluate the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for the detection of significant prostate cancer (PCa) and to compare transperineal MRI/ultrasound-fusion biopsy (fusPbx) to conventional transrectal systematic biopsy (sysPbx) in biopsy-naïve patients.

Utility of the immature platelet fraction in pediatric immune thrombocytopenia: Differentiating from bone marrow failure and predicting bleeding risk.

Differentiating childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) from other cause of thrombocytopenia remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Additionally factors that predict bleeding risk for those patients with ITP are currently not well understood. Previous small studies have suggested that immature platelet fraction (IPF) may differentiate ITP from other causes of thrombocytopenia and in combination with ot...

Gender differences in brain networks during verbal Sternberg tasks:a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and electro-encephalography study.

Gender differences in psychological processes have been of great interest in a variety of fields including verbal fluency, emotion processing, and working memory. Previous studies suggested that women outperform men in verbal working memory (VWM). However, the inherent mechanisms are still unclear. To obtain a deeper insight into the gender differences in brain networks in VWM, this study used nea...

Autophagy and Cancer - Insights from Mouse Models.

(Macro-)autophagy is an evolutionary conserved "self-digestion program" that serves to maintain cellular metabolism and is implicated in many pathological processes such as cancer. In recent years, an increasing number of studies in murine cancer models have provided a plethora of sometimes conflicting results about the role of autophagy in cancer biology. This review summarises these studies and ...

Analysis of infantile fibrosarcoma reveals extensive T-cell responses within tumors: Implications for immunotherapy.

Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare pediatric malignancy with relatively good prognosis, but the risk of progression or recurrence after therapy exists. To understand the immune microenvironment of IFS and determine if immunotherapy is a potential treatment, we analyzed T-cell responses in IFS tumors.

Stimulus-Induced Conformational Transformation of Cyclic Peptide for Selective Cell Targeting On-Off Gatekeeper of Mesoporous Nanocarrier.

The αvβ3 integrin is upregulated on many cancer cells. We designed a dual functional cyclic peptide gatekeeper with a capability of stimuli-responsive conformational transformation which could serve as a selective cell targeting on-off gatekeeper for mesoporous nanocarriers. The advantage of employing the motif of stimuli-induced conformational transformation of cyclic peptides is that they coul...

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