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Clinical Research Organization Research

23:12 EDT 28th March 2017 | BioPortfolio

Introduction to special issue on animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders and substance use disorders: Progress and gaps.

This is an introduction to the special issue, "Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Substance Use Disorders: Progress and Gaps." This issue presents 6 original research reports describing the use of mice and rats to model neurodevelopmental disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the progress of the field a...

Spinal cord injuries: overcoming barriers to seamless care for patients.

Patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often have complex needs that require multidisciplinary support in specialist centres. Optimal management depends on seamless transitions between service providers. Delays at any point potentially compromise clinical outcomes and efficient resource utilisation. The Spinal Advisory Working Group aims to develop and implement practical initiatives to improve...

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Clinical supervision: an important part of every nurse's practice.

Clinical supervision involves a supportive relationship between supervisor and supervisee that facilitates reflective learning and is part of professional socialisation. Clinical supervision can take many different forms and may be adapted to suit local circumstances. A working agreement is required between the parties to the supervision and issues surrounding confidentiality must be understood. H...

Evaluation of a hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprints assay for identification of and discrimination between wild-type and vaccine strains of Brucella melitensis.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate a hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprints (HOOF-Prints) assay for identification of and discrimination between wild-type and vaccine strains of Brucella melitensis. SAMPLE Brucella melitensis vaccine strain M5 and wild-type strain M43. PROCEDURES 8 pairs of primers (alterable, octameric nucleotides) were designed on the basis of a biological analysis of 8 flankin...

Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group we...

Effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation antennas.

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of repeated use and resterilization on structural and functional integrity of microwave ablation (MWA) antennas. SAMPLE 17 cooled-shaft MWA antennas (3 groups of 5 antennas/group and 2 control antennas). PROCEDURES 1, 2, and 3 ablations in the livers of bovine cadavers were performed at the maximum recommended settings. Antennas were cleaned and sterilized in hydroge...

Evaluation of a new method to determine the tibial tuberosity advancement distance required to reduce the patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle to 90° with the modified Maquet technique in dogs.

OBJECTIVE To assess use of a new radiographic method to determine the distance by which the tibial tuberosity should be advanced to reduce the patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) to 90° by means of the modified Maquet technique (MMT) in dogs. SAMPLE 24 pelvic limbs from 12 adult medium-sized to large-breed canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Radiographs of stifle joints at 135° extension in true ...

Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus).

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, hawks were randomly assigned to first receive voriconazole (15 mg/kg, PO) injected...

Variance associated with walking velocity during force platform gait analysis of a heterogeneous sample of clinically normal dogs.

OBJECTIVE To determine whether walking at specific ranges of absolute and relative (V*) velocity would aid efficient capture of gait trial data with low ground reaction force (GRF) variance in a heterogeneous sample of dogs. ANIMALS 17 clinically normal dogs of various breeds, ages, and sexes. PROCEDURES Each dog was walked across a force platform at its preferred velocity, with controlled acceler...

Assessment of the potential efficacy of blind perineural injection techniques for blockade of the saphenous, obturator, and lateral cutaneous femoral nerves in dog cadavers.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential efficacy of blind perineural injection techniques to provide nerve blockade of the saphenous, obturator, and lateral cutaneous femoral nerves by assessing the distribution along those nerves of 3 volumes of an injected staining solution in dog cadavers. ANIMALS 18 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES The anatomic characteristics of the target nerves were evaluated by dis...

Quality assessment of fluconazole capsules and oral suspensions compounded by pharmacies located in the United States.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmaceutical characteristics (strength or concentration, accuracy, and precision), physical properties, and bacterial contamination of fluconazole compounded products. SAMPLE Fluconazole compounded products (30- and 240-mg capsules; 30- and 100-mg/mL oral suspensions) from 4 US veterinary compounding pharmacies. PROCEDURES Fluconazole compounded products were ordered 3 time...

Randomized, controlled clinical trial of safety and plasma concentrations of diclofenac in healthy neonatal foals after repeated topical application of 1% diclofenac sodium cream.

OBJECTIVE To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics and safety of 1% diclofenac sodium cream applied topically to neonatal foals every 12 hours for 7 days. ANIMALS Twelve 2- to 14-day old healthy Arabian and Arabian-pony cross neonatal foals. PROCEDURES A 1.27-cm strip of cream containing 7.3 mg of diclofenac sodium (n = 6 foals) or an equivalent amount of placebo cream (6 foals) was applied topica...

Book Reviews.

Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord related to monocortical screw-polymethylmethacrylate implants in canine cadavers.

OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare MRI susceptibility artifacts related to titanium and stainless steel monocortical screws in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 12 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Cervical vertebrae (C4 and C5) were surgically stabilized with titanium or stainless steel monocortical screws and polymethylmethacrylate. Routine T1-weighted, T2-weighted, ...

Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for distraction osteogenesis in rats.

The Wnt signaling pathway plays crucial roles in embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone regeneration. However, mechanisms of Wnt signaling functioning in distraction osteogenesis (DO) haven't been well characterized.

Reactions with Antisera and Pathological Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Gamma-Toxin in the Cornea.

This study analyzed the toxicity of purified gamma-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus and the protectiveness of antisera to gamma-toxin in the rabbit cornea.

Lymphangiogenesis: fuel, smoke, or extinguisher of inflammation's fire?

Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in...

The role of exosomes derived from cerebrospinal fluid of spinal cord injury in neuron proliferation in vitro.

Exosomes is a key component of cell paracrine secretion and can exert important effects in various disease models. However, the role of exosomes in neuron repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) has rarely been reported. In this study, Exosomes were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of SCI and normal, and incubated neuron in vitro respectively to research its biological function in cell proliferation. ...

DSL prescriptive targets for bone conduction devices: adaptation and comparison to clinical fittings.

To develop an algorithm that prescribes targets for bone conduction frequency response shape, compression, and output limiting, along with a clinical method that ensures accurate transforms between assessment and verification stages of the clinical workflow.

Assessing the Relationship Between Mental Distress and Tobacco Use in Post-Katrina and Rita Louisiana.

The relationship between mental health status and smoking is complicated and often confounded by bi-directionality, yet most research on this relationship assumes exogeneity.

Adverse Childhood Experiences among Veterinary Medical Students: A Multi-Site Study.

This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016 and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based ques...

The role of germline variants in chemotherapy outcome in brain tumors: a systematic review of pharmacogenetic studies.

This systematic review provides an overview of publications concerning pharmacogenetic research in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma and low-grade glioma.

The rationale for rejuvenation research: structuring the debate.

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A descriptive quantitative study of 7- and 8-year-old children's outdoor recreation, cold exposure and symptoms in winter in Northern Finland.

In Finland, children spend a lot of time outdoors in winter. Outdoor recreation in winter has a wide variety of effects on children's well-being. Although children are a subgroup that is vulnerable to cold exposure, remarkably little research has been done on the subject.

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