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Drug Discovery Research

10:34 EDT 20th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Effect of prophylactic cefalexin treatment on the development of bacterial infection in acute radiation-induced dermatitis in dogs: a blinded randomized controlled prospective clinical trial.

Acute radiation-induced dermatitis (ARID) is a common sequela of radiation therapy and carries the risk of secondary bacterial skin infection. No standard of care exists for managing canine ARID and evidence-based guidelines are lacking; however, prophylactic use of antibiotics is common.

Coenzyme Q10 Prevents the Interleukin-1 Beta Induced Inflammatory Response via Inhibition of MAPK Signaling Pathways in Rat Articular Chondrocytes.

Preclinical Research Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widely prevalent degenerative joint disease that severely impairs the health of the elderly population resulting in a heavy economic burden worldwide. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has shown anti-inflammatory effects in some diseases. The present study aimed to investigate if CoQ10 would suppress catabolic responses of interleukin (IL)-1β-induced chondrocytes....

Hot off the Press: Embedded Clinical Decision Support in Electronic Health Record Decreases Use of High-cost Imaging in the Emergency Department: EmbED study.

This longitudinal before/after study of embedded CDRs assessed the effects of clinical decision support on use of common imaging studies. Among high users, rates of CT-brain and CT c-spine were reduced after implementation of embedded clinical decision instruments, while in low users, rates increased. This article summarizes the manuscript and the Skeptics Guide to Emergency Medicine podcast, as w...

From medico-administrative databases analysis to care trajectories analytics: an example with the French SNDS.

Medico-administrative data like SNDS (Système National de Données de Santé) are not collected initially for epidemiological purposes. Moreover, the data model and the tools proposed to SNDS users make their in-depth exploitation difficult. We propose a data model, called the ePEPS model, based on health care trajectories to provide a medical view of raw data. A data abstraction process enables ...

A rapid review of needs assessment tools for post-treatment cancer survivors.

Relevant, comprehensive and psychometrically rigorous needs assessment tools are needed to ensure appropriate care is delivered to cancer survivors who have completed treatment. The aim of this rapid review was to identify and describe needs assessment tools that are used in cancer survivors post-treatment, assess their psychometric properties and describe their use in clinical care. The electroni...

Functional specific-T-cell expansion after first cytomegalovirus reactivation predicts viremia control in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

The use of preemptive antiviral therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients might result in over-treatment, inducing drug-related toxicity and viral resistance. A search for predictive markers is needed, to determine requirement for antiviral therapy. Clinical follow-up, in combination with the use of streptamers (STs) an...

"The days when the anatomist commanded the respect and confidence of his medical colleagues solely on the basis of his knowledge of static morphology, are rapidly disappearing".

Cerebral palsy; clinical safety of clomiphene citrate; BJOG's impact.

Effectiveness of a new tool for self-evaluation of adherence to antimuscarinic drug treatment in older patients of both sexes with urge incontinence.

The present study was a comparison of the validity of the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory (MASRI) questionnaire with other methods of assessing adherence to antimuscarinic drugs treatment in older patients with urge incontinence.

Hepatoblastoma in children aged less than six months at diagnosis: A report from the SIOPEL group.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and survival of children, who were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma (HB) in their first 6 months of age, enrolled in the SIOPEL 2 and 3 protocols.

In a randomized trial in prostate cancer patients, dietary protein restriction modifies markers of leptin and insulin signaling in plasma extracellular vesicles.

Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hyperleptinemia are associated with aging and age-associated diseases including prostate cancer. One experimental approach to inhibit tumor growth is to reduce dietary protein intake and hence levels of circulating amino acids. Dietary protein restriction (PR) increases insulin sensitivity and suppresses prostate cancer cell tumor growth in animal models, providing...

N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) particles as doxorubicin carriers: A comparison between release behavior of physically-loaded drug and conjugated drug via acid-labile hydrazone linkage.

N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBA)-crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles with low degree of crosslinking were synthesized using distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP). Size and size distribution of particles were obtained using DLS and FE-SEM and results showed that microspheres had a narrow size dispersity. (1) H NMR results indicated that amount of crosslinker in structure of ...

Autophagy and Cancer - Insights from Mouse Models.

(Macro-)autophagy is an evolutionary conserved "self-digestion program" that serves to maintain cellular metabolism and is implicated in many pathological processes such as cancer. In recent years, an increasing number of studies in murine cancer models have provided a plethora of sometimes conflicting results about the role of autophagy in cancer biology. This review summarises these studies and ...

Polymer Cancerostatics Targeted with an Antibody Fragment Bound via a Coiled Coil Motif: In Vivo Therapeutic Efficacy against Murine BCL1 Leukemia.

A BCL1 leukemia-cell-targeted polymer-drug conjugate with a narrow molecular weight distribution consisting of an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer carrier and the anticancer drug pirarubicin is prepared by controlled radical copolymerization followed by metal-free click chemistry. A targeting recombinant single chain antibody fragment (scFv) derived from a B1 monoclonal antibody is atta...

Clinical practices and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and management of heart failure: findings from the CORE Needs Assessment Survey.

CORE is a continuing medical education initiative designed to support the evidence-based management of heart failure (HF) in the primary and secondary care settings. The goal of the CORE Needs Assessment Survey is to describe current clinical practice patterns and attitudes among global stakeholders in HF care.

Dual MAPK / PI3K pathway inhibition with trametinib and GSK2141795 does not yield clinical benefit in metastatic NRAS mutant and wild type melanoma.

Aberrant MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling may drive the malignant phenotype in NRAS mutant and BRAF(WT) NRAS(WT) metastatic melanoma. To target these pathways NRAS mutant and BRAF(WT) NRAS(WT) patients received oral trametinib at 1.5 mg daily and GSK2141795 at 50 mg daily in a 2-cohort Simon 2-stage design. Participants had adequate end organ function and no more than 2 prior treatment regimens. Im...

Weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist albiglutide as monotherapy improves glycemic parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

This phase 3, randomized, double-blind 24-week study with extension to 1 year assessed efficacy and safety of albiglutide compared with placebo in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled by diet and exercise with or without a single oral antidiabetic drug.

Oral glucose lowering with linagliptin and metformin compared with linagliptin alone as initial treatment in Asian patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and marked hyperglycemia: subgroup analysis of a randomized clinical trial.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an epidemic in Asia, yet clinical trials of glucose-lowering therapies often enrol predominantly Western populations. We explored the initial combination of metformin and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in newly diagnosed T2DM patients in Asia with marked hyperglycemia.

Assessing healthcare professional knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. Announcing a new World Hypertension League resource.

To assist hypertension control programs and specifically the development of training and education programs on hypertension for healthcare professionals, the World Hypertension League has developed a resource to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. The resource assesses: (1) the importance of hypertension as a clinical and public health risk; (2) education in nati...

Glucose intolerance as the key risk factor for metabolic syndrome.

Big Five Aspects of Personality Interact to Predict Depression.

Research has shown that three personality traits-neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness-moderate one another in a three-way interaction that predicts depressive symptoms in healthy populations. We test the hypothesis that this effect is driven by three-lower order traits: withdrawal, industriousness, and enthusiasm. We then replicate this interaction within a clinical population for the ...

A novel aryl-urea fatty acid that targets the mitochondrion and depletes cardiolipin to promote killing of breast cancer cells.

Cancer cell mitochondria are promising anticancer drug targets because they control cell death and are structurally and functionally different from normal cell mitochondria. We synthesized aryl-urea fatty acids and found that the analogue 16({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)hexadecanoic acid (13b) decreased proliferation and activated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...

Behavioral activation strategies for major depression in transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy: An evidence-based case study.

Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment approach that uses functional analysis and context-dependent strategies to enhance environmental positive reinforcement for adaptive, healthy behavior, and decrease behavioral avoidance. BA has gained considerable support for the treatment of depression and can be broadly applied across a wide range of settings and clinical populations. In this article, we...

Neuropsychological outcome of a case of Susac syndrome: A two-year follow-up study.

Susac syndrome is a rare condition characterised by the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusion, and sensorineural hearing loss. Of the few published cases, there is variability with regard to cognitive outcome. We describe the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of a 21-year-old male patient presenting with severe encephalopathy and later developing the fu...

High Degree of Variability in Reporting of Clinical and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Hip Arthroscopy.

Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of intra-articular pathology is a rapidly expanding field. Outcome measures should be reported to document the efficacy of arthroscopic procedures; however, the most effective outcome measures are not established.

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