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Endocrinology Research

05:59 EDT 24th May 2017 | BioPortfolio

Parasitic plants: Injecting hormone into host.

Is foetal hyperexposure to androgens a cause of PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone durin...

Impact of age and antibody type on progression from single to multiple autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes relatives.

Islet autoantibodies are markers of type 1 diabetes and an increase in number of autoantibodies detected during the preclinical phase is predictive of progression to overt disease.

Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy on Bone and Renal Health in Young Adults Infected with HIV in Early Life.

HIV antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is associated with renal and bone toxicity, but little is known about the potential cumulative effects in adults exposed to ARVs from birth.

A Comprehensive Method to Quantify Adaptations by Male and Female Mice with Hot Flashes Induced by the Neurokinin B Receptor Agonist, Senktide.

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS, or hot flashes) plague millions of reproductive age men and women who have natural or iatrogenic loss of sex steroid production. Many affected individuals are left without treatment options because of contraindications to hormone replacement therapy and the lack of equally effective non-hormonal alternatives. Moreover, development of safer, more effective therapies has bee...

AGRP-EXPRESSING ADRENAL CHROMAFFIN CELLS ARE INVOLVED IN THE SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE TO FASTING.

Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus the only other site with significant expression is the adr...

Placental exosomes as early biomarker of preeclampsia - Potential role of exosomal microRNAs across gestation.

There is a need to develop strategies for early prediction of patients who will develop preeclampsia (PE), in order to establish preventive strategies to reduce the prevalence and severity of the disease and their associated complications.

The different dosages of estrogen affect endometrial fibrosis and receptivity, but not SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions.

The study was to evaluate whether fibrotic markers, endometrial receptivity markers and SDF-1/CXCR4 had been changed in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) by different dosages of estrogen.

A rare case of primary ovarian carcinoid.

We present a rare case in an elderly Caucasian lady of primary ovarian carcinoid tumor, causing symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome and severe carcinoid heart disease. Carcinoid tumors are the commonest neuroendocrine tumors, the majority of which are found in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs. Ovarian carcinoids represent only 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms and 1% of all carcinoid tumors. Carcin...

Should high BMI be a reason for IVF treatment denial?

Our aim was to examine the influence of BMI on the live-birth rate following IVF/ICSI and evaluate its specific contribution among other factors thus enabling accurate reproductive policy development. All patients that underwent IVF/ICSI at our center during January 2012-July 2015 were included in this retrospective study. A total of 1654 ICSI cycles were divided into four groups according to the ...

Mouse minipuberty coincides with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells: a model for human minipuberty.

As the transient postnatal hormone surge in humans, known as 'minipuberty', occurs simultaneously with key steps in germ-cell development, we investigated whether similar changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of neonatal mice at a time that would coincide with gonocyte transformation into spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Serum and testes were collected from C57Bl/6 mice at em...

Risk assessment of the endocrine-disrupting effects of nine chiral pesticides.

The increased release of chiral pesticides into the environment has generated interest in the role of enantioselectivity in the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of these compounds. However, the information on the endocrine disrupting effects (EDEs) of chiral pesticides is still limited and discrepancies are also usually observed among different assays. In this study, we investigated...

High-dose testosterone enanthate supplementation boosts oxidative stress, but exerts little effect on the antioxidant barrier in sedentary adolescent male rat liver.

Anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse is on the rise among adolescent boys and young men, mostly in those seeking a 'shortcut' to an improved body image. This approach is associated with the risk of severe adverse health effects, some of which involve the liver and are linked to hepatic oxidative stress. Testosterone and its esters is a cornerstone of most anabolic-androgenic steroid stacking protoco...

Rosa Damascena oil improved sexual function and testosterone in male patients with opium use disorder under methadone maintenance therapy-results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Some patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are treated with methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). However, as with opioids, methadone has major side-effects; sexual dysfunction is a particularly distressing such effect. Rosa Damascena oil has been shown to reduce subjective sexual dysfunction in patients with major depressive disorders, but its influence on testosterone has not so far been tested...

Trauma exposure, incident psychiatric disorders, and disorder transitions in a longitudinal population representative sample.

Heterotypic continuity, whereby individuals transition from one disorder to another, is common; however, longitudinal studies examining transdiagnostic predictors of heterotypic continuity are lacking. The current study examined whether trauma exposure during childhood (maltreatment) and adulthood (interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma) is associated with heterotypic continuity in a national ...

Estrogen Hormone Biology.

The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear recept...

Resistance to Thyroid Hormone due to Heterozygous Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor Alpha.

Thyroid hormone (TH) acts via nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). TR isoforms (TRα1, TRα2, TRβ1, TRβ2) are encoded by distinct genes (THRA and THRB) and show differing tissue distributions. Patients with mutations in THRB, exhibiting resistance within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with elevated TH and nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, were first described d...

TR2 and TR4 Orphan Nuclear Receptors: An Overview.

Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosa...

Competition-related testosterone, cortisol, and perceived personal success in recreational women athletes.

Thirty-five women participating in one or more intramural flag-football games provided saliva samples before, immediately after, and 10min after competition and completed an after-competition questionnaire appraising their own performance during the game. As seen in other studies of elite athletes, these recreational athletes, on average, showed significant elevations in testosterone (T) and corti...

Correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and craving in alcohol dependent stabilized patients.

Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders.

Low-intensity interventions for anxiety disorders.

Vulvar Fibroepithelial Polyps in an Adolescent Female.

Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) are benign tumors, of possibly hormone-dependent nature, found in the vulvovaginal region of women of reproductive age.

Decreased food anticipatory activity of obese mice relates to hypothalamic c-Fos expression.

During daily Food Restriction (FR), obese Neotomodon alstoni mice present decreased Food Anticipatory Activity (FAA) compared to lean mice. Here, we investigated whether FOS expression in hypothalamic nuclei involved in food synchronization and anticipation parallels decreased FAA during daily FR of obese N. alstoni. Locomotor activity of lean and obese mice in ad libitum feeding conditions was mo...

Stability or instability in avoidant personality disorder:Mode fluctuations within schema therapy sessions.

Avoidant personality disorder (APD) is among the most prevalent personality disorders, but has received relatively little empirical attention. This study aims to characterize the frequency, intensity, and fluctuation patterns seen in the modes (self-states) of APD clients over the course of schema therapy (ST), a psychotherapy approach developed especially for personality disorders.

Asymmetry and empathy: Higher asymmetry is associated with lower levels of mentalizing.

People differ in their mentalizing abilities. Though past research suggests that individual differences in exposure to prenatal testosterone may be able to explain why some people excel at mentalizing, while others struggle, meta-analyses yield a null relationship between 2D:4D ratio (a proxy for prenatal testosterone) and mentalizing. Importantly, however, past research has not examined the asymm...

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