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Gastroenterology Research

12:36 EDT 18th August 2017 | BioPortfolio

SCALING UP NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL: LESSONS TO BE LEARNT FROM THE INFECTIOUS DISEASE PARADIGM IN KENYA.

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are emerging as the leading cause of morbidity & mortality globally, with the greatest rise in incidence of cardiovascular disease cases observed in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is in addition to the heavy burden of infectious diseases already present in this setting. Describing the cross-cutting epidemiology of NCDs and infectious diseases with focus on the interaction...

Recent Advances in CT Imaging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Lung imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose, quantify and phenotype chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although spirometry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD and for severity staging, the role of computed tomography (CT) imaging has expanded in both clinical practice and research. COPD is a heterogeneous disease with considerable variability in clinical features, rad...

Orbital cancer: A second cancer in exenterated patients.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Radioiodine-refractory advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer has poor prognosis. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer treatment.

A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cancer Screening Disparities in the Deep South and Appalachia: The American Cancer Society's CHA Collaborative.

Cancer disparities continue to exist in the United States. Community health advisors (CHAs) can play a critical role in addressing cancer disparities. The American Cancer Society (ACS) implemented a 3-year pilot CHA program in the South based on an evidence-based program to increase breast cancer screening.

Message Received: African American Women and Breast Cancer Screening.

African American women are more likely than other women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age, to be diagnosed at a late stage, and to die from the disease. Yet we see evidence of irregular screening and follow-up. Previous research on psychosocial factors influencing decisions to screen reveals barriers: fear, fatalistic perceptions of cancer, inaccurate perceptions of risk, and assoc...

Increasing Colorectal Cancer Screening at an Urban FQHC Using iFOBT and Patient Navigation.

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Black Americans suffer even higher incidence and death rates than the general population. Genetics and patient perceptions explain some of this difference, however, modifiable health care system factors such as lack of access to colon cancer screening also contribute. Partnering an academic health center with local...

Barbershop Prostate Cancer Education: Factors Associated With Client Knowledge.

The purpose of this paper is to identify characteristics of Black barbershop clients and barbers in an urban Midwestern city participating in a health promotion program called Affecting Cancer Together (ACT) that are associated with client knowledge about prostate cancer. Statistical analyses examined client and barber characteristics for their potential association with client prostate cancer kno...

Organ-Organ Crosstalk and Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Alcohol consumption is a common custom worldwide, and the toxic effects of alcohol on several target organs are well-understood. Given the poor prognosis of treating clinically-relevant alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and cirrhosis), additional research is required to develop more effective therapies. While the stages of ALD have been well-characterized, targeted ther...

Nine New Triterpene Glycosides, Magnumosides A₁-A₄, B₁, B₂, C₁, C₂ and C₄, from the Vietnamese Sea Cucumber Neothyonidium (=Massinium) magnum: Structures and Activities against Tumor Cells Independently and in Synergy with Radioactive Irradiation.

Nine new sulfated triterpene glycosides, magnumosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), A₃ (3), A₄ (4), B₁ (5), B₂ (6), C₁ (7), C₂ (8) and C₄ (9) as well as a known colochiroside B₂ (10) have been isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Neothynidium (=Massinium) magnum (Phyllophoridae, Dendrochirotida) collected in the Vietnamese shallow waters. The structures of new glycosides...

Advances in Understanding of Penile Carcinogenesis: The Search for Actionable Targets.

Penile cancer (PeCa) is a rare malignancy with potentially devastating effects. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant with distinct precancerous lesions before development into invasive disease. Involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in PeCa, and once disease is present outside the groin, prognosis is poor. Metastatic PeCa is challenging to tre...

Concomitant bladder cancer and prostate cancer: challenges and controversies.

Radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) followed by bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion remains the gold-standard therapy for men with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Prostate cancer might be incidentally detected at the time of RCP with a reported prevalence of 24-51%. Typically, these patients are considered to have clinically insignificant disease, but data from eme...

What do Cochrane systematic reviews say about the clinical effectiveness of screening and diagnostic tests for cancer?

The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm.

Hepatic Parenchymal Heterogeneity as a Marker for Oxaliplatin-Induced Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: Correlation With Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases.

The objective of our study was to evaluate the influence of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OBC)-induced hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity detected on contrast-enhanced CT scans on response of liver metastasis. We chose to study hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity on the basis of the assumption that hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity may indicate the presence of chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstru...

Dietary Supplements Commonly Used by Cancer Survivors: Are There Any Benefits?

Following a cancer diagnosis, dietary supplements are reportedly used by 20%-80% of individuals. Supplements are most commonly used by breast cancer survivors, followed by patients with prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers, which is not surprising since these are the most common types of cancer diagnosed in adults. Reasons cited for such use include improving quality of life, reducing symptoms r...

Reprogramming human gallbladder cells into insulin-producing β-like cells.

The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo....

Long-term persistent infection of HPV 16 E6 up-regulate SP1 and hTERT by inhibiting LKB1 in lung cancer cells.

HPV 16 E6 upregulates hTERT expression in lung cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. In this paper, E6, LKB1, SP1, and hTERT mRNA expression levels were detected in brushing cells of patients with lung cancer (n = 106) and with benign lung disease (n = 68) by qRT-PCR. The mRNA expression levels of E6, SP1, and hTERT were significantly increased in the malignant grou...

Implementation of a comprehensive intervention for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease in rural China: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

This study aims to assess whether a standard intervention package of cardiovascular disease (CVD) care was being delivered effectively, and if it was associated with improved lifestyle and biomedical indicators.

Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

This meta-analysis aims to compare hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) with conventional laparoscopic surgery (LAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of intraoperative, postoperative, and survival outcomes.

Exploitation of Gene Expression and Cancer Biomarkers in Paving the Path to Era of Personalized Medicine.

Cancer therapy agents have been used extensively as cytotoxic drugs against tissue or organ of a specific type of cancer. With the better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and cellular events during cancer progression and metastasis, it is now possible to use targeted therapy for these molecular events. Targeted therapy is able to identify cancer patients with dissimi...

Rotavirus disease course among immunocompromised patients; 5-year observations from a tertiary care medical centre.

Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed beyond infancy. We assessed rotavirus disease among immunocompromised hospitalized patients.

An Integrated Systems Biology Approach Identifies TRIM25 as a Key Determinant of Breast Cancer Metastasis.

At the root of most fatal malignancies are aberrantly activated transcriptional networks that drive metastatic dissemination. Although individual metastasis-associated genes have been described, the complex regulatory networks presiding over the initiation and maintenance of metastatic tumors are still poorly understood. There is untapped value in identifying therapeutic targets that broadly gov...

The Tumor Suppressor p53 Limits Ferroptosis by Blocking DPP4 Activity.

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that may facilitate the selective elimination of tumor cells. The tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) has been demonstrated to promote ferroptosis via a transcription-dependent mechanism. Here, we show that TP53 limits erastin-induced ferroptosis by blocking dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity in a transcription-independent manner. Loss of TP53 prevents nu...

Subjects at Risk for Genetic Late-Onset Neurological Diseases: Objective Knowledge.

This study addresses the objective knowledge about the disease of subjects at risk for 3 genetic late-onset neurological diseases (LOND): familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) TTR V30M, Huntington disease (HD), and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD).

Genetics of Alcoholism.

Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk ...

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