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Immunology Research

10:32 EDT 20th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Chronic endometritis: Really so relevant in repeated IVF failure?

Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β upregulates microRNA, let-7f-1 in human endocervical cells.

In endocervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7), miRNA let-7f plays an important role in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanism for let-7f regulation in these cells remains largely unclear.

Valganciclovir (VGCV) followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV) hyperimmune globulin compared to VGCV for 200 days in abdominal organ transplant recipients at high risk for CMV infection: A prospective, randomized pilot study.

With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity an...

Analysis of infantile fibrosarcoma reveals extensive T-cell responses within tumors: Implications for immunotherapy.

Infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) is a rare pediatric malignancy with relatively good prognosis, but the risk of progression or recurrence after therapy exists. To understand the immune microenvironment of IFS and determine if immunotherapy is a potential treatment, we analyzed T-cell responses in IFS tumors.

CRISPR-Cas Technology in Viral Therapeutics.

Caution When Assessing Immunity to Varicella Through Antibody Testing in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Exploitation of stable nanostructures based on the mouse polyomavirus for development of a recombinant vaccine against porcine circovirus 2.

The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-di...

Rewiring monocyte glucose metabolism via C-type lectin signaling protects against disseminated candidiasis.

Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced t...

Small heat shock protein 27: An effective adjuvant for enhancement of HIV-1 Nef antigen-specific immunity.

Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-speci...

A novel mutation in the JH4 domain of JAK3 causing severe combined immunodeficiency complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis.

JAK3 is a tyrosine kinase essential for signaling downstream of the common gamma chain subunit shared by multiple cytokine receptors. JAK3 deficiency results in T(-)B(+)NK(-) severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). We report a patient with SCID due to a novel mutation in the JAK3 JH4 domain. The function of the JH4 domain remains unknown. This is the first report of a missense mutation in the JA...

Low levels of the immunoregulator Semaphorin 4D (CD100) in sera of HIV patients.

Semaphorin-4D (CD100), generated by CD4/CD8 cells, plays an important role in T cells activation. It also regulates B cell differentiation via its receptor the CD72. Both have soluble forms - sCD100/sCD72.

Asthmatic farm children show increased CD3+CD8low T-cells compared to non-asthmatic farm children.

Effect of Calcium Carbonate Encapsulation on the Activity of Orally Administered CpG Oligonucleotides.

Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) stimulate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Because oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are susceptible to gastric degradation, clinical trials designed to evaluate their therapeutic utility have relied solely on parenteral routes of administration. A strategy to improve the activity of orally delivered ODNs by re...

Codon-Optimized P1A-Encoding DNA Vaccine: Toward a Therapeutic Vaccination against P815 Mastocytoma.

DNA vaccine can be modified to increase protein production and modulate immune response. To enhance the efficiency of a P815 mastocytoma DNA vaccine, the P1A gene sequence was optimized by substituting specific codons with synonymous ones while modulating the number of CpG motifs. The P815A murine antigen production was increased with codon-optimized plasmids. The number of CpG motifs within the ...

DNA nanotechnology-based composite-type gold nanoparticle-immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel for tumor photothermal immunotherapy.

Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold na...

Th9 cells promote antitumor immunity via IL-9 and IL-21 and demonstrate atypical cytokine expression in breast cancer.

Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in women. Antitumor T cell responses play critical therapeutic roles, including direct cytotoxicity mediated by CD8(+) T cells and immunomodulatory roles mediated by CD4(+) T cells. The IL-9-expressing Th9 cells are recently found to present antitumor immunity in melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found that IL-9 expression in...

Mathematical Fundamentals for the Noise Immunity of the Genetic Code.

Symmetry is one of the essential and most visible patterns that can be seen in nature. Starting from the left-right symmetry of the human body, all types of symmetry can be found in crystals, plants, animals and nature as a whole. Similarly, principals of symmetry are also some of the fundamental and most useful tools in modern mathematical natural science that play a major role in theory and appl...

HLA class I expression predicts prognosis and therapeutic benefits from tyrosine kinase inhibitors in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients.

Classical HLA class I antigen is highly involved in antigen presentation and adaptive immune response against tumor. In this study, we explored its predictive value for treatment response and survival in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients.

Circulating Normal IgG as Stimulator of Regulatory T Cells: Lessons from Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a pooled normal IgG formulation prepared from thousands of healthy donors' plasma, is extensively used for the immunotherapy of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Recent reports demonstrate that IVIG exerts anti-inflammatory actions by stimulating the activation and expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells by multiple mechanisms via antigen-presenting cells (AP...

Breast cancer vaccines delivered by dendritic cell-targeted lentivectors induce potent antitumor immune responses and protect mice from mammary tumor growth.

Breast cancer immunotherapy is a potent treatment option, with antibody therapies such as trastuzumab increasing 2-year survival rates by 50%. However, active immunotherapy through vaccination has generally been clinically ineffective. One potential means of improving vaccine therapy is by delivering breast cancer antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) for enhanced antigen presentation. To accomplish t...

Autophagy-Dependent Generation of Free Fatty Acids Is Critical for Normal Neutrophil Differentiation.

Neutrophils are critical and short-lived mediators of innate immunity that require constant replenishment. Their differentiation in the bone marrow requires extensive cytoplasmic and nuclear remodeling, but the processes governing these energy-consuming changes are unknown. While previous studies show that autophagy is required for differentiation of other blood cell lineages, its function during ...

SIDT2 Transports Extracellular dsRNA into the Cytoplasm for Innate Immune Recognition.

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and acts as a potent trigger of antiviral immunity. In the nematode C. elegans, sid-1 encodes a dsRNA transporter that is highly conserved throughout animal evolution, but the physiological role of SID-1 and its orthologs remains unclear. Here, we show that the mammalian SID-1 ortholog, SIDT2, is required to transport internal...

Glycans Function as Anchors for Antibodies and Help Drive HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Development.

Apex broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) recognize glycans and protein surface close to the 3-fold axis of the envelope (Env) trimer and are among the most potent and broad Abs described. The evolution of apex bnAbs from one donor (CAP256) has been studied in detail and many Abs at different stages of maturation have been described. Using diverse engineering tools, we investigated the inv...

Comparison of phagocytosis in three Caribbean Sea urchins.

In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a ...

Circulating tumor cell as a biomarker for evaluating allogenic NK cell immunotherapy on stage Ⅳ non-small cell lung cancer.

In this study, we determined the number of peripheral blood circulating tumor cells (CTCs) pre- and post-NK in patients with stage Ⅳ non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a reference for understanding the relevance of any changes to the efficacy of NK cells therapy. The patients were given one to three courses of immunotherapy.CTC numbers and CTC-related gene expression were measured in the per...

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