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Infectious-diseases Research

22:14 EDT 19th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Effect of prophylactic cefalexin treatment on the development of bacterial infection in acute radiation-induced dermatitis in dogs: a blinded randomized controlled prospective clinical trial.

Acute radiation-induced dermatitis (ARID) is a common sequela of radiation therapy and carries the risk of secondary bacterial skin infection. No standard of care exists for managing canine ARID and evidence-based guidelines are lacking; however, prophylactic use of antibiotics is common.

Chlamydia trachomatis regulates innate immune barrier integrity and mediates cytokine and antimicrobial responses in human uterine ECC-1 epithelial cells.

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide and known to increase the risk for HIV acquisition. Few studies have investigated how infection of epithelial cells compromises barrier integrity and antimicrobial response.

Identification of occult active infection using PET-CT in a combined liver-kidney transplant candidate.

This case describes a patient being considered for combined liver-kidney transplantation for Caroli's disease with a failed renal transplant. A chronic septic focus could not be located with standard imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography. This case report highlights the observation that a retained non-functioning transplant can be the cause of fever of unknown origin ...

Valganciclovir (VGCV) followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV) hyperimmune globulin compared to VGCV for 200 days in abdominal organ transplant recipients at high risk for CMV infection: A prospective, randomized pilot study.

With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity an...

Early blood stream infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a risk factor for acute grade III-IV GVHD in children and adolescents.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In adults, early blood stream infection (BSI) and acute GVHD (AGVHD) have been reported to be related. The impact of BSI on risk for AGVHD, however, has not been assessed in pediatric patients.

Chronic kidney disease and incident apparent treatment-resistant hypertension among blacks: Data from the Jackson Heart Study.

It is unclear whether black patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs those without CKD who take antihypertensive medication have an increased risk for apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH). The authors analyzed 1741 Jackson Heart Study participants without aTRH taking antihypertensive medication at baseline. aTRH was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure while taking three antihyp...

A case of ocular infection with Onchocerca lupi in a dog from Germany.

Onchocerca lupi is an emerging zoonotic parasite infecting the ocular connective tissue of dogs, cats and humans. The only known case of canine ocular onchocerciasis in Germany was documented in 2002 in a shelter dog. However, the species of Onchocerca causing the infection could not be identified. Here, we report a case of the ocular infection with O. lupi in a dog, confirmed by PCR and sequenci...

Characterization of Site-Specific glycosylation in Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin produced by Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line.

Influenza hemagglutinin is a surface glycoprotein related to virus invasion and host immune system response. Understanding site specific glycosylation of hemagglutinin will increase our knowledge about virus evolution and can improve the design and quality of vaccines. In our study, we used glycoproteomic analysis based on multienzyme digestion followed by LC tandem MS analysis to determine the gl...

Monomeric M2e antigen in VesiVax® liposomes stimulates protection against type A strains of influenza comparable to liposomes with multimeric forms of M2e.

Given the interest in the ectodomain of the matrix 2 (M2e) channel protein as a target for development of a universal influenza vaccine, we examined the role of the antigen configuration of M2e in generating a protective immune response. A series of M2e mutations and a truncated M2e segment were prepared as a means of controlling the formation of monomer, dimer, and higher order multimeric forms o...

Risk Factors for Nasal Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in Healthy Humans in Professional Daily Contact with Companion Animals in Portugal.

Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), namely Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are opportunistic agents of great importance in human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency, persistence, and risk factors associated with nasal colonization by MRS in people in daily contact with animals in Portugal. Seventy-nine ou...

The Effect of Lysozyme on Reducing Biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Gardnerella vaginalis: An In Vitro Examination.

Two basic questions about lysozyme activities on the selected microorganisms were investigated, namely whether lysozyme inhibits biofilm production and which concentrations of the enzyme have the ability to change the natural biofilm producing capacity of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Gardnerell...

Strategies in recommending influenza vaccination in Europe and US.

There is potential for influenza vaccine programmes to make a substantial impact on the disease burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified young children, pregnant women, persons with chronic medical conditions, and the elderly as being at risk for severe influenza disease and therefore important groups to be considered for influenza vaccination. Applying the methodology of scoping...

Do Allogeneic Blood Transfusions Cause Infection?

What, where and why: exploring fluorodeoxyglucose-PET's ability to localise and differentiate infection from cancer.

To review the utility of FDG-PET imaging in detecting the cause of fever and infection in patients with cancer.

Vaccination during pregnancy: first line of defense for expecting mothers and vulnerable young infants.

Maternal vaccination is a well-tolerated and effective way to protect mothers, their developing fetuses, and their young infants from infectious diseases. Although influenza vaccine and diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine are recommended for all pregnant women, uptake rates in the United States remain low. This review will focus on the rationale, scientific evidence, and pe...

Elevated IgG4 serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 elevation has been associated with several pathological conditions other than IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In cystic fibrosis (CF), an elevation of specific IgG4 has been associated with colonization and infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IgG4 elevation may be a marker of chronic infection or inflammatory stimulation. The aim of this study was to explore the preva...

Exploitation of stable nanostructures based on the mouse polyomavirus for development of a recombinant vaccine against porcine circovirus 2.

The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-di...

A 21-winter seasons retrospective study of antibody response after influenza vaccination in elderly (60-85 years old) and very elderly (>85 years old) institutionalized subjects.

Influenza vaccination is considered the best mean for preventing the higher rates of mortality associated with influenza virus infection in the elderly as compared with younger people. Since the number of very elderly subjects, aged >85 years, is rapidly increasing, and some authors reported increments in influenza-associated mortality with age, the aim of this study was to increase the limited i...

Small heat shock protein 27: An effective adjuvant for enhancement of HIV-1 Nef antigen-specific immunity.

Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-speci...

Dodecyl sorbitan ethers as antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria.

A range of amphiphilic sorbitan ethers has been synthesized in two steps from sorbitan following an acetalization/hydrogenolysis sequence. These sorbitan ethers and the acetal intermediates have been evaluated as antimicrobials against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. No antimicrobial activity was observed for Gram-negative bacteria. However, the compounds bearing a linear dodecyl chain e...

Bacteriophages as an Alternative to Conventional Antibiotic use for the Prevention or Treatment of Paenibacillus larvae in Honeybee Hives.

American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studie...

Human SMOOTHENED inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

Human SMOOTHENED (SMO) was identified by expression cloning as a new host factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection. Forced expression of SMO inhibited HIV-1 replication and infection with a single-round lentiviral vector, but not infection with a murine leukemia virus-based retroviral vector in human MT-4 T cells. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that stable expression of SMO impaired formation of t...

The role of oxidative stress in influenza virus infection.

Virus-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the regulation of the host immune system. In this review, we provide backgrounds of the pathogenic mechanism of oxidative stress induced by influenza virus and the specific oxidant-sensitive pathways, and highlight that antioxidant is one of the effective strategies against influenza virus infection.

Corrections.

High CMV IgG antibody levels are associated to a lower CD4+ RESPONSE to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women.

Virtually all HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa have evidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and levels of specific anti-CMV IgG have been suggested to represent more intense reactivation of subclinical infection. Studies have also shown direct influence of CMV on lymphocytes.

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