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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS) Research

22:13 EDT 19th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Fetal microchimerism in human brain tumors.

Sex differences in cancer incidence and survival, including central nervous system tumors, are well documented. Multiple mechanisms contribute to sex differences in health and disease. Recently, the presence of fetal-in-maternal microchimeric cells has been shown to have prognostic significance in breast and colorectal cancers. The frequency and potential role of these cells has not been investiga...

Effects of individual and partner factors on anxiety and depression in Taiwanese prostate cancer patients: A longitudinal study.

Studies exploring the mediating and predictive factors of anxiety and depression for prostate cancer patients in Eastern countries are scant. Guided by the transactional model of stress and coping, this study determined the predictors and mediators of anxiety and depression in prostate cancer patients. The participants comprised 115 prostate cancer patients and 91 partners. The patients and partne...

Three shades of grey: detecting brain abnormalities in children with autism by using Source-, Voxel- and Surface-based Morphometry.

Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to young...

A rapid review of needs assessment tools for post-treatment cancer survivors.

Relevant, comprehensive and psychometrically rigorous needs assessment tools are needed to ensure appropriate care is delivered to cancer survivors who have completed treatment. The aim of this rapid review was to identify and describe needs assessment tools that are used in cancer survivors post-treatment, assess their psychometric properties and describe their use in clinical care. The electroni...

5-HTTLPR moderates the association between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats.

While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cu...

The Neurobiological Bases of Autism Spectrum Disorders The R451C-Neuroligin 3 mutation hampers the expression of long-term synaptic depression in the dorsal striatum.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs hav...

Initial testing (stage 1) of M6620 (formerly VX-970), a novel ATR inhibitor, alone and combined with cisplatin and melphalan, by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program.

M6620 is a novel inhibitor of the DNA damage repair enzyme ATR, and has potentiated the activity of cisplatin and irinotecan in non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer xenografts, respectively.

Gender differences in brain networks during verbal Sternberg tasks:a simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and electro-encephalography study.

Gender differences in psychological processes have been of great interest in a variety of fields including verbal fluency, emotion processing, and working memory. Previous studies suggested that women outperform men in verbal working memory (VWM). However, the inherent mechanisms are still unclear. To obtain a deeper insight into the gender differences in brain networks in VWM, this study used nea...

Autophagy and Cancer - Insights from Mouse Models.

(Macro-)autophagy is an evolutionary conserved "self-digestion program" that serves to maintain cellular metabolism and is implicated in many pathological processes such as cancer. In recent years, an increasing number of studies in murine cancer models have provided a plethora of sometimes conflicting results about the role of autophagy in cancer biology. This review summarises these studies and ...

Risk factors for postoperative ileus after colorectal cancer surgery.

To assess the rate and independent risk factors of postoperative ileus (POI) after colorectal cancer surgery.

First natural endocranial cast of a fossil snake (Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina).

In this study, we describe a natural endocranial cast included in a partially preserved medium-sized skull of the Upper Cretaceous South American snake Dinilysia patagonica. The endocast is composed of sedimentary filling of the cranial cavity in which the posterior brain, the vessels, the cranial nerves, and the inner ear surrounded by delicate semicircular canals, are represented. It is simple i...

Prostate Cancer Treatment in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

The majority of kidney transplants are performed in recipients (RTR) over 50; simultaneously their life expectancy is improving. The increasing age and number of RTR is likely to be paralleled by an increase of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. However, little is known on the optimal management of these patients who represent a therapeutic challenge due to medical and anatomical graft-related issue...

BAF180: Its Roles in DNA Repair and Consequences in Cancer.

In 2011, Varela et al. reported that the PBRM1 gene is mutated in approximately 40% of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases. Since then, the number of studies relating PBRM1 mutations to cancers has substantially increased. BAF180 has now been linked to more than 30 types of cancers, including ccRCC, cholangiocarcinomas, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, and breast cancer. The m...

A novel aryl-urea fatty acid that targets the mitochondrion and depletes cardiolipin to promote killing of breast cancer cells.

Cancer cell mitochondria are promising anticancer drug targets because they control cell death and are structurally and functionally different from normal cell mitochondria. We synthesized aryl-urea fatty acids and found that the analogue 16({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)hexadecanoic acid (13b) decreased proliferation and activated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...

Effects of Chronic and Intermittent Calorie Restriction on Adropin Levels in Breast Cancer.

Adropin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in insulin resistance and as a potential regulator of growth. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of calorie restriction on circulating levels of adropin in the MMTV-TGFα breast cancer mouse model and investigate the effects of adropin peptide on the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-231 breast cancer cells in culture. Ten-week-old mice ...

Supraorbital electrical stimulation in management of chronic type tension headache: A randomized controlled study.

Headache disorders are considered one of the ten most disabling conditions, for both males and females, according to the World Health Organization. Chronic type tension headache (CTTH) has a prevalence of 2-3% within the general population. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of stimulating noninvasively the trigeminal nerve in the supraorbital area (SOES) for treatment of C...

Online Educational Tool to Promote Bone Health in Cancer Survivors.

Osteoporosis burden is significant in cancer survivors. Websites providing health information abound, but their development, quality, and source of information remain unclear. Our aim was to use a systematic and transparent approach to create an educational website on bone health, and to evaluate its potential to improve knowledge, self-management, and awareness in prostate cancer (PCa) and breast...

The Effects of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on Discussion of Cancer Experiences: Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Korea.

This study aimed to identify young adult Korean cancer survivors' individual- (psychological distress, stigma, sociodemographic variables, and cancer-related variables) and network-level factors (relationship type, social support type) that influence discussion of their cancer experiences. Sixty-eight survivors of childhood cancer who were recruited using snowball sampling nominated 245 individual...

Breast cancer survivors' perceptions of participating in a supervised exercise intervention: an exploratory review of the literature.

Despite the reported beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) during and after cancer diagnosis, current research data suggest that the percentages of breast cancer survivors who adhere to PA recommendations are low. The aim of the present systematic, critical review was to identify, analyze and provide a summary of qualitative literature findings, which have explored breast cancer survivors' ...

How Cancer Patients Use and Benefit from an Interactive Cancer Communication System.

Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of eHealth interventions, their mechanisms of action remain unknown. The current study analyzed patient log data as each patient engaged in an eHealth system called the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) and reports on how patients engage with different combinations of eHealth services over time. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients ...

Gender differences in variables associated with sleep quality in chronic tension type headache.

We aimed to evaluate gender differences in the relationships between headache features, sleep quality, anxiety, depressive symptoms and burden of headache in 193 patients (73% women) with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Headache features were collected with a four-week diary. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was use...

Synthesis, Radiosynthesis, and Preliminary in vitro and in vivo Evaluation of the Fluorinated Ceramide Trafficking Inhibitor (HPA-12) for Brain Applications.

Ceramide levels are increased in blood and brain tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Since the ceramide transporter protein (CERT) is the only known protein able to mediate non-vesicular transfer of ceramide between organelle membranes, the modulation of CERT function may impact on ceramide accumulation. The competitive CERT inhibitor N-(3-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-3-phenylpropyl) dodecanam...

Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) Improves Amyloid-β Pathology, Cognitive Dysfunction, and Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Dysfunctional Wnt signaling is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and activation of the Wnt signaling pathway inhibits AD development. Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) is a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway and is physiologically expressed in the brain. The role of Dkk3 in the pathogenesis of AD has not been evaluated. In the present study, we determined that Dkk3 expression was significantly decreas...

Brain Biomarkers in Familial Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Models.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deterioration. It is thought that the onset of the disease takes place several decades before memory deficits are apparent. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognostication of the disease are highly desirable. Neural stem cells (NSC) exist in the adult brain throughout life and give rise to neural progeni...

Sex-Dependent Associations of Serum Uric Acid with Brain Function During Aging.

Serum uric acid (SUA) is an abundant natural antioxidant which could reduce the burden of cellular oxidation, a major cause of neurodegenerative disease. In line with this, SUA levels are lower in those with Alzheimer's disease; however, the association between SUA and cognition remains unclear. Results from studies examining the effects of SUA on cognition may be difficult to interpret in the con...

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