Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare News - Page: 2 from Nature Publishing

11:48 EST 21st February 2017 | BioPortfolio

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Showing News Articles 26–50 of 28,000+ from Nature Publishing

Tuesday 21st February 2017

Vitamin D signaling and melanoma: role of vitamin D and its receptors in melanoma progression and management

Suppression of islet homeostasis protein thwarts diabetes mellitus progression

Adipogenic niches for melanoma cell colonization and growth in bone marrow

MiRNA expression profiles reveal the involvement of miR-26a, miR-548l and miR-34a in hepatocellular carcinoma progression through regulation of ST3GAL5

Maresin1 stimulates alveolar fluid clearance through the alveolar epithelial sodium channel Na,K-ATPase via the ALX/PI3K/Nedd4-2 pathway

Human γδ T cells are quickly reconstituted after stem-cell transplantation and show adaptive clonal expansion in response to viral infection

γδ T cells are generally understood to be innate lymphocytes. Prinz and colleagues show that human γδ T cells reconstituted after bone-marrow transplantation have a distinct repertoire that can be shaped by infection with cytomegalovirus, which suggests features of adaptive immunity.

Early transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of CD8+ T cell differentiation revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing

CD8+ T cells rapidly commence transcriptional changes after antigenic encounter and priming. Yeo and colleagues find substantial transcriptional heterogeneity among responding lymphocytes, particularly at the first division, that influences cell fate.

MHC-I peptides get out of the groove and enable a novel mechanism of HIV-1 escape

Structural determination and analysis of HLA-I that presents an HIV-derived peptide to an NK cell receptor reveal that N-terminal extended epitope conformations contribute to immune recognition and mechanisms of HIV immune escape.

Mechanistic basis for the recognition of a misfolded protein by the molecular chaperone Hsp90

The interaction of Hsp90 with misfolded monomeric transthyretin is characterized via biophysical approaches, and the data indicate that Hsp90 may have a distinct recognition mode for aggregation-prone proteins.

Quaternary contact in the initial interaction of CD4 with the HIV-1 envelope trimer

Cryo-EM analyses of the initial contact of the HIV-1 Env trimer with the CD4 receptor reveal that CD4 interacts with two gp120 protomers; these quaternary contacts are important for viral infectivity.

HIV Tat protein and amyloid-β peptide form multifibrillar structures that cause neurotoxicity

HIV Tat binding to the exterior of Aβ fibrils induces lateral aggregation and formation of fibers with increased adhesion, rigidity and mechanical resistance, thus potentially accounting for their higher neurotoxicity.

Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL

Photosystem II (PSII) is a huge membrane-protein complex consisting of 20 different subunits with a total molecular mass of 350 kDa for a monomer. It catalyses light-driven water oxidation at its catalytic centre, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The structure of PSII has been analysed at 1.9 Å resolution by synchrotron radiation X-rays, which revealed that the OEC is a Mn4CaO5 cluster orga...

Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism

Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8+ TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellula...

Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness

A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, sti...

Visualizing excitations at buried heterojunctions in organic semiconductor blends

A pump–push–probe time-resolved technique is developed to characterize the dynamics of photoexcitations at buried, disordered interfaces. Applied to organic bulk heterojunctions, the method provides insight on charge separation in photovoltaic films.

A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing

A neuromorphic device based on the stable electrochemical fine-tuning of the conductivity of an organic ionic/electronic conductor is realized. These devices show high linearity, low noise and extremely low switching voltage.

Unravelling surface and interfacial structures of a metal–organic framework by transmission electron microscopy

The operational conditions used for electron microscopy can limit the insight that can be gained from fragile material samples. It is shown here how high-resolution TEM analysis of delicate MOFs can be achieved.

Organic electronics: Battery-like artificial synapses

Borrowing the operating principles of a battery, a three-terminal organic switch has been developed on a flexible plastic substrate. The device consumes very little power and can be used as an artificial synapse for brain-inspired computing.

Organic photovoltaics: Pushing the knowledge of interfaces

The use of a spectroscopy technique called pump–push–probe electro-absorption provides insight into the energetic landscape of nanostructured donor–acceptor interfaces in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

Infectious disease: Hitching a ride with DCs

Pseudogenization of a single Salmonella effector protein gene facilitates pathogen hijacking of dendritic cells to spread systemically.

Infection: IL-22 controls iron scavenging

During systemic infection interleukin-22 can limit the availability of iron by promoting increased production of haem scavengers.

Macrophages: mTORC1 drives granulomas

MTORC1-dependent macrophage proliferation and glycolysis drive granuloma formation in sarcoidosis.

Monday 20th February 2017

Timing the day: what makes bacterial clocks tick?

Circadian rhythms enable cells to anticipate cyclic changes in their environment. In this Review, Johnson et al. explore timekeeping systems that range from prototypical circadian clocks to hourglass timers and their role in different bacteria, including cyanobacteria and members of the microbiota.

The β-barrel assembly machinery in motion

In this Progress article, Buchanan and colleagues discuss recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the structure of the fully assembled β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex and the interactions between the individual components. They also detail the mechanistic insights that have been gained and explore two emerging models for BAM-mediated outer membrane protein biogenesis in b...

Gαq takes centre stage in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis

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