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Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest that protects the organism from tumorigenesis and regulates tissue integrity upon damage and during tissue remodeling. However, accumulation of senescent cells in tissues during aging contributes to age-related pathologies. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating the viability of senescent cells is therefore required. Here, we show that the CDK inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) maintains the viability of DNA damage-induced senescent cells. Upon p21 knockdown, senescent cells acquired multiple DNA lesions that activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and nuclear factor (NF)-B kinase, leading to decreased cell survival. NF-B activation induced TNF-α secretion and JNK activation to mediate death of senescent cells in a caspase- and JNK-dependent manner. Notably, p21 knockout in mice eliminated liver senescent stellate cells and alleviated liver fibrosis and collagen production. These findings define a novel pathway that regulates senescent cell viability and fibrosis.NEXT ARTICLE
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...