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Recent developments on genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels and bio‐based chemicals

21:41 EDT 8 Aug 2017 | Wiley Biotechnology Journal

Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio‐based chemicals. Microalgae can help mitigate greenhouse effect. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments and other valuable compounds. However, there are still some obstacles in developing microalgae‐based biofuels and chemicals in industry Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, Therefore, screening of to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae‐based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. For a powerful genetic screening, the resistance gene used should be efficient. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time‐consuming and microalgal‐strain‐dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome‐editing tools (e.g., CRISPR‐Cas9, TALEN and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. In the current scenario, insufficient genomic data will challenge the applications of such genome editing tools in microalgae. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries.

Original Article: Recent developments on genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels and bio‐based chemicals

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