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Pediatrics Research

23:57 EDT 22nd September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Do Alcohol Use Reasons and Contexts Differentiate Adolescent High-Intensity Drinking? Data From U.S. High School Seniors, 2005-2016.

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between (a) self-reported reasons for and contexts of alcohol use and (b) high-intensity drinking (i.e., having 10+ drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. 12th grade students. Data were obtained from 16,902 students who reported any past 12-month alcohol use from nationally representative annual 12th grade student s...

The Role of Young Adult Social Bonds, Substance Problems, and Sexual Risk in Pathways Between Adolescent Substance Use and Midlife Risky Sexual Behavior Among Urban African Americans.

African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from...

Infant Iron Deficiency, Child Affect, and Maternal Unresponsiveness: Testing the Long-Term Effects of Functional Isolation.

Children who are iron deficient (ID) or iron-deficient anemic (IDA) have been shown to seek and receive less stimulation from their caregivers, contributing to functional isolation. Over time, the reduced interactions between child and caregiver are thought to interfere with the acquisition of normative social competencies and adversely affect the child's development. The current study examined fu...

Group Norms, Intergroup Resource Allocation, and Social Reasoning Among Children and Adolescents.

Cooperation is a fundamental drive of moral behavior from infancy, yet competitive intergroup contexts can exert a significant influence on resource allocation behavior in childhood. The present study explored how ingroup and outgroup norms of competition and cooperation influenced the allocation of resources between groups among children and adolescents, along with how they reasoned about these a...

Sleep Problems in Preschoolers and Maternal Depressive Symptoms: An Evaluation of Mother- and Child-Driven Effects.

Child sleep problems are associated with maternal depressive symptoms. It is unclear to what extent the association is due to direct effects or common risk factors for mother and child. Direct effects could represent child-driven processes, where child sleep problems influence maternal depressive symptoms, or mother-driven processes, where maternal depressive symptoms influence child sleep problem...

Media Exposure in Very Young Girls: Prospective and Cross-Sectional Relationships With BMIz, Self-Esteem and Body Size Stereotypes.

Media exposure among young children has been suggested to influence self-concept and the adoption of social stereotypes regarding body weight, as well as being associated with increased weight. The aim of this study was to examine the role of TV/DVD viewing in the development of positive stereotypes toward thinness, self-esteem and body mass index standardized for child age and gender (BMIz) in ve...

Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning.

Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study, following conceptual work framing family processes an...

Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Mother-Child Interactions, and Children's Executive Function.

This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. At 24 and...

Not Just Numeracy and Literacy: Theory of Mind Development and School Readiness Among Low-Income Children.

The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differenc...

Cognition-Emotion Interaction as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

Given the sharp increase in rates of depression during adolescence, especially in girls, it is important to identify which youth are at greatest risk across this critical developmental transition. During the present research, we examined whether (a) individual differences in cognition-emotion interaction, as reflected in cognitive control (CC) deficits and trait negative emotionality (NE), predict...

Mexican-Origin Youth Substance Use Trajectories: Associations With Cultural and Family Factors.

The current study identified alcohol and cannabis use trajectories among a sample of Mexican-origin youth and examined cultural and familial correlates from childhood to adolescence. Mexican-origin youth (N = 674) from Northern California were assessed annually from ages 10 to 17 (8 waves). Latent class growth modeling examined variability in developmental trajectories for last 3-month alcohol and...

Environmental Sensitivity in Children: Development of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale and Identification of Sensitivity Groups.

A large number of studies document that children differ in the degree they are shaped by their developmental context with some being more sensitive to environmental influences than others. Multiple theories suggest that Environmental Sensitivity is a common trait predicting the response to negative as well as positive exposures. However, most research to date has relied on more or less proximal ma...

The Codevelopment of Sympathy and Overt Aggression From Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence.

We assessed the extent to which feelings of sympathy and aggressive behaviors codeveloped from 6 to 12 years of age in a representative sample of Swiss children (N = 1,273). Caregivers and teachers reported children's sympathy and overt aggression in 3-year intervals. Second-order latent curve models indicated general mean-level declines in sympathy and overt aggression over time, although the dec...

Pharmacokinetics of a New Amphetamine Extended-Release Oral Suspension in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

An extended-release amphetamine (AMP) oral suspension has been developed to facilitate medication ingestion and dose titration. This study sought to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of this new formulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Autism Spectrum Disorder Among US Children (2002-2010): Socioeconomic, Racial, and Ethnic Disparities.

To describe the association between indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the United States during the period 2002 to 2010, when overall ASD prevalence among children more than doubled, and to determine whether SES disparities account for ongoing racial and ethnic disparities in ASD prevalence.

Criterion Validity of the Rorschach Developmental Index With Children.

The Rorschach Developmental Index (DI) is a composite measure of psychological development. The aim of this study was to examine the criterion validity of the DI by investigating its relationship with age, nonverbal intelligence, and the impact of institutionalization in a sample of Brazilian children. The sample included 231 children, ages 7 to 11, who were either living with their families or in...

The Social Context of Adolescent Co-Use of Cigarillos and Marijuana Blunts.

The use of cigarillos for smoking as a tobacco product and for making marijuana blunts is increasing among adolescents. Previous research has documented the co-use of these products, however little is known about the contextual features that generate and sustain this practice.

Use of virtual reality intervention to improve reaction time in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of Virtual Reality (VR) intervention program on reaction time in children with cerebral palsy.

Geographic Access to Cancer Care and Mortality Among Adolescents.

Adolescents with cancer have had less improvement in survival than other populations in the United States. This may be due, in part, to adolescents not receiving treatment at Children's Oncology Group (COG) institutions, which have been shown to increase survival for some cancers. The objective of this ecologic study was to examine geographic distance to COG institutions and adolescent cancer mort...

Research methods in child welfare, by Baker, A. J. L. & Charvat, B. J.

Toward Neuroproteomics in Biological Psychiatry: A Systems Approach Unravels Okadaic Acid-Induced Alterations in the Neuronal Phosphoproteome.

Neuroproteomics is an evolving field of postgenomic medicine, highlighting the convergence of psychiatry/neurology and proteomics, yet compared with neurogenetics, it has received little attention. This study in rat primary neuronal cultures provides an example of a neuroproteomic approach relevant to the study of psychiatric disease pathophysiology, focusing on Alzheimer's disease. In this contex...

Surviving the Loss of a Child: A Mexican-American's Story.

This paper tells the story of a mother's loss of her 10-year-old daughter from cancer. It is in part a pain and suffering narrative and a story of remarkable post-loss growth and transformation. It is a story told for busy parents and multitasking nurses, to all of us who need to relearn how to be attentive to others, particularly our children. The woman who tells the story is one of the authors (...

The Peace and Power Conceptual Model: An Assessment Guide for School Nurses Regarding Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.

Human trafficking is a global problem; more than half of all victims are children. In the United States (US), at-risk youth continue to attend school. School nurses are on the frontlines, presenting a window of opportunity to identify and prevent exploitation. Available papers targeting school nurses report that school nurses may lack awareness of commercial sexual exploitation and may have attitu...

Do reading and spelling share orthographic representations? Evidence from developmental dysgraphia.

Both spelling and reading depend on knowledge of the spellings of words. Despite this commonality, observed dissociations between spelling and reading in cases of acquired and developmental deficits suggest some degree of independence between the cognitive mechanisms involved in these skills. In this paper, we examine the relationship between spelling and reading in two children with developmental...

Parent-Adolescent Acculturation Gap and Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents from an Emergency Department.

Examine the impact of parent-adolescent acculturation gap on vulnerability to suicidal ideation among adolescents presenting to an emergency department with suicidal behavior.

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