| Diclofenac Sodium

10:35 EDT 25th October 2014 | BioPortfolio
Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Cardiovascular Risk

Gastrointestinal Risk

Diclofenac, as the sodium salt, is a benzene-acetic acid derivative, designated chemically as Sodium [o-(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl]acetate. The molecular weight is 318.13. Its molecular formula is CHClNNaOand it has the following structural formula:

Diclofenac sodium USP, is a faintly yellowish white to light beige, virtually odorless, slightly hygroscopic crystalline powder. The molecular weight of the sodium salt is 318.13. It is freely soluble in methanol, soluble in ethanol, and practically insoluble in chloroform and in dilute acid. Diclofenac sodium is sparingly soluble in water. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient is 13.4 at pH 7.4 and 1545 at pH 5.2. The sodium salt has a single dissociation constant (pKa) of 4.0 ± 0.2 at 25ºC in water.

Each delayed-release tablet for oral administration contains 50 mg or 75 mg of diclofenac sodium. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, FD & C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake (50 mg), FD & C Red No. 40 (75 mg), FD & C Yellow No. 6, hypromellose, iron oxide yellow (50 mg), lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, simethicone, sodium hydroxide, talc and titanium dioxide.

IMAGE 4b0d7319-a587-4648-bded-5b35b8efa1cb-01.jpg

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of diclofenac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

Diclofenac is 100% absorbed after oral administration compared to IV administration as measured by urine recovery. However, due to first-pass metabolism, only about 50% of the absorbed dose is systemically available (see Table 1). Food has no significant effect on the extent of diclofenac absorption. However, there is usually a delay in the onset of absorption of 1 to 4.5 hours and a reduction in peak plasma levels of < 20%.

Table 1. Pharmacokinetic Parameters for Diclofenac
PK Parameter Normal Healthy Adults
(20 to 48 years)
Mean Coefficient of Variation (%)
Absolute Bioavailability (%)
[N = 7]
55 40
Tmax (hr)
[N = 56]
2.3 69
Oral Clearance
(CL/F; mL/min)
[N = 56]
582 23
Renal Clearance
(% unchanged drug in urine)
[N = 7]
< 1
Apparent Volume of Distribution
(V/F; L/kg)
[N = 56]
1.4 58
Terminal Half-life (hr)
[N = 56]
2.3 48

The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of diclofenac sodium is 1.4 L/kg.

Diclofenac is more than 99% bound to human serum proteins, primarily to albumin. Serum protein binding is constant over the concentration range (0.15 to 105 mcg/mL) achieved with recommended doses.

Diclofenac diffuses into and out of the synovial fluid. Diffusion into the joint occurs when plasma levels are higher than those in the synovial fluid, after which the process reverses and synovial fluid levels are higher than plasma levels. It is not known whether diffusion into the joint plays a role in the effectiveness of diclofenac.

Five diclofenac metabolites have been identified in human plasma and urine. The metabolites include 4’-hydroxy-, 5-hydroxy-, 3’-hydroxy-, 4’, 5-dihydroxy- and 3’-hydroxy-4’- methoxy diclofenac. In patients with renal dysfunction, peak concentrations of metabolites 4’-hydroxy- and 5-hydroxy-diclofenac were approximately 50% and 4% of the parent compound after single oral dosing compared to 27% and 1% in normal healthy subjects. However, diclofenac metabolites undergo further glucuronidation and sulfation followed by biliary excretion.

One diclofenac metabolite 4’-hydroxy- diclofenac has very weak pharmacologic activity.

Diclofenac is eliminated through metabolism and subsequent urinary and biliary excretion of the glucuronide and the sulfate conjugates of the metabolites. Little or no free unchanged diclofenac is excreted in the urine. Approximately 65% of the dose is excreted in the urine and approximately 35% in the bile as conjugates of unchanged diclofenac plus metabolites. Because renal elimination is not a significant pathway of elimination for unchanged diclofenac, dosing adjustment in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction is not necessary. The terminal half-life of unchanged diclofenac is approximately 2 hours.

The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac has not been investigated in pediatric patients.

Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified.

Hepatic metabolism accounts for almost 100% of diclofenac elimination, so patients with hepatic disease may require reduced doses of diclofenac compared to patients with normal hepatic function.

Diclofenac pharmacokinetics has been investigated in subjects with renal insufficiency. No differences in the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac have been detected in studies of patients with renal impairment. In patients with renal impairment (inulin clearance 60 to 90, 30 to 60, and < 30 mL/min; N = 6 in each group), AUC values and elimination rate were comparable to those in healthy subjects.

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets are indicated:

Diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to diclofenac.

Diclofenac should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma).

Diclofenac is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to 3 years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS: GI Effects).

Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

NSAIDs, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including diclofenac, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Diclofenac should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.

NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.

NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Caution should be used when initiating treatment with diclofenac in patients with considerable dehydration.

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of diclofenac in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with diclofenac is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If diclofenac therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

Elevations of one or more liver tests may occur during therapy with diclofenac. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged or may be transient with continued therapy. Borderline elevations (i.e., less than 3 times the ULN [ULN = the upper limit of the normal range]) or greater elevations of transaminases occurred in about 15% of diclofenac-treated patients. Of the markers of hepatic function, ALT (SGPT) is recommended for the monitoring of liver injury.

In clinical trials, meaningful elevations (i.e., more than 3 times the ULN) of AST (GOT) (ALT was not measured in all studies) occurred in about 2% of approximately 5,700 patients at some time during diclofenac treatment. In a large, open-label, controlled trial of 3,700 patients treated for 2 to 6 months, patients were monitored first at 8 weeks and 1,200 patients were monitored again at 24 weeks. Meaningful elevations of ALT and/or AST occurred in about 4% of patients and included marked elevations (i.e., more than 8 times the ULN) in about 1% of the 3,700 patients. In that open-label study, a higher incidence of borderline (less than 3 times the ULN), moderate (3 to 8 times the ULN), and marked (> 8 times the ULN) elevations of ALT or AST was observed in patients receiving diclofenac when compared to other NSAIDs. Elevations in transaminases were seen more frequently in patients with osteoarthritis than in those with rheumatoid arthritis.

Almost all meaningful elevations in transaminases were detected before patients became symptomatic. Abnormal tests occurred during the first 2 months of therapy with diclofenac in 42 of the 51 patients in all trials who developed marked transaminase elevations.

In post-marketing reports, cases of drug-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported in the first month, and in some cases, the first 2 months of therapy, but can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac. Post-marketing surveillance has reported cases of severe hepatic reactions, including liver necrosis, jaundice, fulminant hepatitis with and without jaundice and liver failure. Some of these reported cases resulted in fatalities or liver transplantation.

Physicians should measure transaminases periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy with diclofenac, because severe hepatotoxicity may develop without a prodrome of distinguishing symptoms. The optimum times for making the first and subsequent transaminase measurements are not known. Based on clinical trial data and post-marketing experiences, transaminases should be monitored within 4 to 8 weeks after initiating treatment with diclofenac. However, severe hepatic reactions can occur at any time during treatment with diclofenac.

If abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, if clinical signs and/or symptoms consistent with liver disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dark urine, etc.), diclofenac should be discontinued immediately.

To minimize the possibility that hepatic injury will become severe between transaminase measurements, physicians should inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness and "flu-like" symptoms), and the appropriate action patients should take if these signs and symptoms appear.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse liver related event in patients treated with diclofenac, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Caution should be exercised in prescribing diclofenac with concomitant drugs that are known to be potentially hepatotoxic (e.g., antibiotics, anti-epileptics).

As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to diclofenac. Diclofenac should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

NSAIDs, including diclofenac, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, diclofenac should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Diclofenac cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of diclofenac in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including diclofenac. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including diclofenac, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving diclofenac who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, diclofenac should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. In patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including diclofenac, the CBC and a chemistry profile (including transaminase levels) should be checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, diclofenac should be discontinued.

When diclofenac is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of diclofenac and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Diclofenac, like other NSAIDs, may affect renal prostaglandins and increase the toxicity of certain drugs. Therefore, concomitant therapy with diclofenac may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity. Caution should be used when diclofenac is administered concomitantly with cyclosporine.

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE inhibitors.

Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, have shown that diclofenac can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.

Because of the known effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of diclofenac on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from diclofenac, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).

In patients taking diclofenac or other NSAIDs, the most frequently reported adverse experiences occurring in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal experiences including: abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, heartburn, nausea, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal) and vomiting.

Abnormal renal function, anemia, dizziness, edema, elevated liver enzymes, headaches, increased bleeding time, pruritus, rashes and tinnitus.

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis

Cardiovascular System: congestive heart failure, hypertension, tachycardia, syncope

Digestive System: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, jaundice

Hemic and Lymphatic System: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, leukopenia, melena, purpura, rectal bleeding, stomatitis, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes

Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, dream abnormalities, drowsiness, insomnia, malaise, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, vertigo

Respiratory System: asthma, dyspnea

Skin and Appendages: alopecia, photosensitivity, sweating increased

Special Senses: blurred vision

Urogenital System: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure.

Other adverse reactions, which occur rarely are:

Body as a Whole: anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death

Cardiovascular System: arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction, palpitations, vasculitis

Digestive System: colitis, eructation, liver failure, pancreatitis

Hemic and Lymphatic System: agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia

Nervous System: convulsions, coma, hallucinations, meningitis

Respiratory System: respiratory depression, pneumonia

Skin and Appendages: angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria

Special Senses: conjunctivitis, hearing impairment.

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs and may occur following an overdose.

Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 g to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

After observing the response to initial therapy with diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

For the relief of osteoarthritis, the recommended dosage is 100 to 150 mg/day in divided doses (50 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d., or 75 mg b.i.d.).

For the relief of rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended dosage is 150 to 200 mg/day in divided doses (50 mg t.i.d. or q.i.d., or 75 mg b.i.d.).

For the relief of ankylosing spondylitis, the recommended dosage is 100 to 125 mg/day, administered as 25 mg q.i.d., with an extra 25 mg dose at bedtime if necessary.

Different formulations of diclofenac are not necessarily bioequivalent even if the milligram strength is the same.

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets, USP are available containing 50 mg or 75 mg of diclofenac sodium, USP.

The 50 mg tablet is a light brown round, unscored, enteric coated tablet imprinted with G-DS-50 in black ink. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-6280-91bottles of 60

NDC 0378-6280-01bottles of 100

NDC 0378-6280-10bottles of 1000

The 75 mg tablet is a light pink round, unscored, enteric coated tablet imprinted with G-DS-75 in black ink. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-6281-91bottles of 60

NDC 0378-6281-01bottles of 100

NDC 0378-6281-10bottles of 1000

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from moisture.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as described in the USP using a child-resistant closure.

PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.

Manufactured in Australia by: ALPHAPHARM PTY. LTD. 15 Garnet St.Carole Park QLD 4300 Australia

Manufactured for: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

REVISED DECEMBER 2009ALP:DICLDR:R1mc

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:

NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).”

NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:

The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

NSAID medicines should only be used:

What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

Tell your healthcare provider:

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

 

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised 06/2009

Serious side effects include: Other side effects include:
heart attack stroke high blood pressure heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) kidney problems including kidney failure bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine low red blood cells (anemia) life-threatening skin reactions life-threatening allergic reactions liver problems including liver failure asthma attacks in people who have asthma stomach pain constipation diarrhea gas heartburn nausea vomiting dizziness
NSAID medicines that need a prescription
Generic Name Tradename
Celecoxib Celebrex
Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol)
Diflunisal Dolobid
Etodolac Lodine, Lodine XL
Fenoprofen Nalfon, Nalfon 200
Flurbiprofen Ansaid
Ibuprofen Motrin, Tab-Profen, VicoprofenVicoprofen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The OTC NSAID label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone)
Indomethacin Indocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan
Ketoprofen Oruvail
Ketorolac Toradol
Mefenamic Acid Ponstel
Meloxicam Mobic
Nabumetone Relafen
Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole)
Oxaprozin Daypro
Piroxicam Feldene
Sulindac Clinoril
Tolmetin Tolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 50 mg

NDC 68788-9185

DICLOFENAC SODIUMDELAYED-RELEASETABLETS, USP50 mg

PHARMACIST: Dispense the Medication Guide provided separately to each patient.

Each enteric coatedtablet contains: Diclofenacsodium, USP . . . . . . 50 mg

Dispense in a tight, light-resistantcontainer as defined in the USPusing a child-resistant closure.

Keep container tightly closed.

Keep this and all medicationout of the reach of children.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).[See USP Controlled RoomTemperature.]

Protect from moisture.

Usual Dosage: See accompanyingprescribing information.

Manufactured in Australia by: ALPHAPHARM PTY. LTD. 15 Garnet St.Carole Park QLD 4300Australia

Manufactured for: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

RALP6280D

Repackaged By: Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc. Anaheim, CA 92807

IMAGE 4b0d7319-a587-4648-bded-5b35b8efa1cb-02.jpg

Manufacturer

Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc

Active Ingredients

Source

Drugs and Medications [100 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Diclofenac sodium [Pack Pharmaceuticals, LLC]

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 25 mg, 50 mg and 75 mg

Diclofenac sodium [Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc]

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 50 mg

Diclofenac sodium [Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.]

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets, USP 75 mg

Diclofenac sodium [H.J. Harkins Company, Inc.]

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 25 mg, 50 mg and 75 mg

Diclofenac sodium [Pack Pharmaceuticals, LLC]

Diclofenac Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 25 mg, 50 mg and 75 mg

Clinical Trials [925 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of IV Diclofenac Sodium (2 Doses)Versus Oral Diclofenac Potassium

The purpose of this study is to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous diclofenac sodium (DIC075V) 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg following single- and multiple-dose administration, as...

Study to Assess Effects of Age, Weight, and Body Composition on the Pharmacokinetics of IV Diclofenac Sodium

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of age, weight, and body composition on the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and tolerability of intravenous diclofenac sodium (DIC075V) ...

Efficacy and Safety of Diclofenac Sodium (0.1%) Gel in Patients With UV Induced Painful Sunburn

Diclofenac sodium 0.1% will be applied to sunburned skin when the intensity of pain reaches a certain level in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment on this induced pa...

Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Ankle Sprain

The primary purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of once daily application of a diclofenac sodium patch to the skin near or over the painful area. In this study, the locat...

Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

The primary purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of once daily application of a diclofenac sodium patch to the skin near or over the painful area. In this study, the locati...

PubMed Articles [1755 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Manipulating ratio spectra for the spectrophotometric analysis of diclofenac sodium and pantoprazole sodium in laboratory mixtures and tablet formulation.

Objective. Three sensitive, selective, and precise spectrophotometric methods based on manipulation of ratio spectra, have been developed and validated for the determination of diclofenac sodium and p...

The comparison of analgesic effects of various administration methods of diclofenac sodium, transdermal, oral and intramuscular, in early postoperative period in laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of oral, intra muscular and transdermal diclofenac sodium for pain treatment in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and their...

The Comparison of the Effects of Ellagic Acid and Diclofenac Sodium on Intra-Abdominal Adhesion: An In Vivo Study in the Rat Model.

Abstract Peritoneal adhesions are seen frequently after abdominal surgery and can cause serious complications. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the oral use of diclofenac sodium and ellagic acid on...

Simultaneous analysis of skin penetration of surfactant and active drug from fluorosurfactant-based microemulsions.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetrated amount of the incorporated model drug diclofenac-sodium and of a fluorosurfactant as specific vehicle constituent of topically applied micro...

Dielectric barrier discharge induced degradation of diclofenac in aqueous solution.

A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor as one of the advanced oxidation processes was applied to the degradation of diclofenac in aqueous solution. The various parameters that affect the degrada...

Search BioPortfolio:
Loading
Advertisement

Relevant Topic

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Latest News Clinical Trials Research Drugs Reports Corporate
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina and heart attack), heart failure, congenital heart disease and stroke. It is also known as heart and circulatory disease. Coron...

Advertisement

Drugs and Medication Quicklinks


Searches Linking to this Drug Record