PHENTERMINE HYDROCHLORIDE | Phentermine Hydrochloride
Phentermine hydrochloride, USP has the chemical name of α,α-Dimethylphenethylamine hydrochloride. The structural formula is as follows:
Phentermine hydrochloride is a white, odorless, hygroscopic, crystalline powder which is soluble in water and lower alcohols; slightly soluble in chloroform and insoluble in ether.
Phentermine hydrochloride, an anorectic agent for oral administration, is available as:
Phentermine is a sympathomimetic amine with pharmacologic activity similar to the prototype drugs of this class used in obesity, the amphetamines. Actions include central nervous system stimulation and elevation of blood pressure. Tachyphylaxis and tolerance have been demonstrated with all drugs of this class in which these phenomena have been looked for.
Drugs of this class used in obesity are commonly known as "anorectics" or "anorexigenics." It has not been established that the action of such drugs in treating obesity is primarily one of appetite suppression. Other central nervous system actions, or metabolic effects, may be involved, for example.
Adult obese subjects instructed in dietary management and treated with "anorectic" drugs lose more weight on the average than those treated with placebo and diet, as determined in relatively short-term clinical trials.
The magnitude of increased weight loss of drug-treated patients over placebo-treated patients is only a fraction of a pound a week. The rate of weight loss is greatest in the first weeks of therapy for both drug and placebo subjects and tends to decrease in succeeding weeks. The possible origins of the increased weight loss due to the various drug effects are not established. The amount of weight loss associated with the use of an "anorectic" drug varies from trial to trial, and the increased weight loss appears to be related in part to variables other than the drugs prescribed, such as the physician-investigator, the population treated and the diet prescribed. Studies do not permit conclusions as to the relative importance of the drug and non-drug factors on weight loss.
The natural history of obesity is measured in years, whereas the studies cited are restricted to a few weeks' duration; thus, the total impact of drug-induced weight loss over that of diet alone must be considered clinically limited.
Phentermine hydrochloride is indicated as a short-term (a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight reduction based on exercise, behavioral modification and caloric restriction in the management of exogenous obesity for patients with an initial body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m, or ≥ 27 kg/m in the presence of other risk factors (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia).
Below is a chart of Body Mass Index (BMI) based on various heights and weights.
BMI is calculated by taking the patient's weight, in kilograms (kg), divided by the patient's height, in meters (m), squared. Metric conversions are as follows: pounds ÷ 2.2 = kg; inches × 0.0254 = meters.
The limited usefulness of agents of this class (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ) should be measured against possible risk factors inherent in their use such as those described below.
Advanced arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma.
Patients with a history of drug abuse.
During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result).
Phentermine hydrochloride capsules are indicated only as short-term monotherapy for the management of exogenous obesity. The safety and efficacy of combination therapy with phentermine and any other drug products for weight loss, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, paroxetine), have not been established. Therefore, coadministration of these drug products for weight loss is not recommended.
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH)—a rare, frequently fatal disease of the lungs—has been reported to occur in patients receiving a combination of phentermine with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine. The possibility of an association between PPH and the use of phentermine alone cannot be ruled out; there have been rare cases of PPH in patients who reportedly have taken phentermine alone. The initial symptom of PPH is usually dyspnea. Other initial symptoms include: angina pectoris, syncope or lower extremity edema. Patients should be advised to report immediately any deterioration in exercise tolerance. Treatment should be discontinued in patients who develop new, unexplained symptoms of dyspnea, angina pectoris, syncope or lower extremity edema.
Valvular Heart Disease: Serious regurgitant cardiac valvular disease, primarily affecting the mitral, aortic and/or tricuspid valves, has been reported in otherwise healthy persons who had taken a combination of phentermine with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine for weight loss. The etiology of these valvulopathies has not been established and their course in individuals after the drugs are stopped is not known. The possibility of an association between valvular heart disease and the use of phentermine alone cannot be ruled out; there have been rare cases of valvular heart disease in patients who reportedly have taken phentermine alone.
Tolerance to the anorectic effect usually develops within a few weeks. When this occurs, the recommended dose should not be exceeded in an attempt to increase the effect; rather, the drug should be discontinued.
Phentermine may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly.
Concomitant use of alcohol with phentermine may result in an adverse drug interaction.
Caution is to be exercised in prescribing phentermine hydrochloride for patients with even mild hypertension.
Insulin requirements in diabetes mellitus may be altered in association with the use of phentermine and the concomitant dietary regimen.
Phentermine may decrease the hypotensive effect of guanethidine. The least amount feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage.
Studies have not been performed with phentermine hydrochloride to determine the potential for carcinogenesis, mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with phentermine hydrochloride. It is also not known whether phentermine hydrochloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Phentermine should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Cardiovascular: Primary pulmonary hypertension and/or regurgitant cardiac valvular disease (see WARNINGS ), palpitation, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure.
Central Nervous System: Overstimulation, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, euphoria, dysphoria, tremor, headache; rarely psychotic episodes at recommended doses.
Gastrointestinal: Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances.
Endocrine: Impotence, changes in libido.
Phentermine is related chemically and pharmacologically to the amphetamines. Amphetamines and related stimulant drugs have been extensively abused, and the possibility of abuse of phentermine should be kept in mind when evaluating the desirability of including a drug as part of a weight reduction program. Abuse of amphetamines and related drugs may be associated with intense psychological dependence and severe social dysfunction. There are reports of patients who have increased the dosage to many times that recommended. Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG. Manifestations of chronic intoxication with anorectic drugs include severe dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity and personality changes. The most severe manifestation of chronic intoxications is psychosis, often clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia.
Manifestations of acute overdosage with phentermine include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension, and circulatory collapse.
Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning usually terminates in convulsions and coma.
Management of acute phentermine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes lavage and sedation with a barbiturate. Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit recommendations in this regard. Acidification of the urine increases phentermine excretion. Intravenous phentolamine has been suggested for possible acute, severe hypertension, if this complicates phentermine overdosage.
Dosage should be individualized to obtain an adequate response with the lowest effective dose.
The usual adult dosage is 15 to 30 mg at approximately 2 hours after breakfast for appetite control. Late evening medication should be avoided because of the possibility of resulting insomnia. Administration of one capsule (30 mg) daily has been found to be adequate in depression of the appetite for 12 to 14 hours.
Phentermine is not recommended for use in patients 16 years of age and under.
Drugs and Medications
PHENTERMINE HYDROCHLORIDE 37.5 MG TABLETS USP PHENTERMINE HYDROCHLORIDE 37.5 MG CAPSULES USP Rx Only CIV
PHENTERMINE HCl TABLETS, USP
PHENTERMINE HCI 15MG USP CAPSULES PHENTERMINE HCI 30MG USP CAPSULES Rx Only
PHENTERMINE HCl TABLETS, USP37.5 mg
PHENTERMINE HCl TABLETS, USP37.5 mg
The primary objective of this study is to describe the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of two novel formulations of topiramate and commercially available immediate relea...
VI-0521, a fixed dose combination of immediate-release (IR) phentermine and controlled-release (CR) topiramate, is in Phase III clinical development as a potential therapy for obesity. In...
This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. The goal is to show whether the administration of daily oral Phentermine will augment patient weight loss and resolve obe...
To determine the long-term efficacy of the combination therapy of phentermine and fenfluramine in conjunction with diet, exercise, and behavior modification in the treatment of simple, mod...
This study is an extension of a study that has been ongoing for 1 year. The purpose of this open label study is to see the how well type 2 diabetics respond to VI-0521(phentermine/topirama...
Purpose A case of rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of phentermine is reported. Summary A 32-year-old Caucasian man with a recent history of strenuous exercise sought treatment for significant ba...
To evaluate safety and efficacy of phentermine 15 mg plus extended-release topiramate 92 mg for treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese adults.
Owing to the tight control of methamphetamine, it is presumed that phentermine, an amphetamine-type anorectic, has recently been considered a supplement for methamphetamine abusers in Korea. In additi...
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