Minocycline Hydrochloride 100 mg | Minocycline Hydrochloride
Minocycline hydrochloride is a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline, 4,7-Bis(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride
single dose of two 100 mg capsules of minocycline HCl administered to 18 normal fasting adult volunteers, maximum serum concentrations were attained in 1 to 4 hours (average 2.1 hours) and ranged from 2.1 to 5.1 μg/mL (average 3.5 μg/mL). The serum half-life in the normal volunteers ranged from 11.1 to 22.1 hours (average 15.5 hours).
The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including minocycline, have a similar antimicrobial spectrum of activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Cross-resistance of these organisms to tetracycline is common.
Minocycline has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.
Because many strains of the following gram-positive microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are especially recommended. Tetracycline antibiotics should not be used for streptococcal diseases unless the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible. Tetracyclines are not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Bacillus anthracis Listeria monocytogenes Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae
AEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE MICROORGANISMS
Bartonella bacilliformis Brucella species Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Campylobacter fetus Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi Vibrio cholerae Yersinia pestis
Because many strains of the following groups of gram-negative microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility tests are especially recommended.
Acinetobacter species Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Klebsiella species Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis Shigella species
Actinomyces species Borrelia recurrentis Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis Clostridium species Entamoeba species Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies fusiforme Mycobacterium marinum Mycoplasma pneumoniae Propionibacterium acnes Rickettsiae Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue† Ureaplasma urealyticum
When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines are alternative drugs in the treatment of infections caused by the cited microorganisms.
Susceptibility testing should be performed with tetracycline since it predicts susceptibility to minocycline. However, certain organisms (e.g., some staphylococci, and Acinetobacter species) may be more susceptible to minocycline and doxycycline than to tetracycline.
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method (Ref1, Ref3 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of tetracycline powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae), Acinetobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus:
These interpretative standards are applicable only to agar dilution susceptibility testing using GC agar base and 1% defined growth supplements. Ref1
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard tetracycline powder should provide the following MIC values:
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure (Ref2, Ref3) requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 μg tetracycline (class disk) or 30 μg minocycline to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to minocycline.
Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30-μg tetracycline or minocycline disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic gram-negative microorganisms (Enterobac-teriaceae), Acinetobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus:.
These interpretative standards are applicable only to disk diffusion testing performed with a 30-μg tetracycline disk. Ref2
Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for tetracycline.
As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30-μg tetracycline or minocycline disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:
Minocycline hydrochloride capsules are indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:
Minocycline is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Minocycline hydrochloride capsules are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
When penicillin is contraindicated, minocycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections:
In acute intestinal amebiasis, minocycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
In severe acne, minocycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
Oral minocycline is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis to eliminate meningococci from the nasopharynx. In order to preserve the usefulness of minocycline in the treatment of asymptomatic meningococcal carriers, diagnostic laboratory procedures, including serotyping and susceptibility testing, should be performed to establish the carrier state and the correct treatment. It is recommended that the prophylactic use of minocycline be reserved for situations in which the risk of meningococcal meningitis is high.
Oral minocycline is not indicated for the treatment of meningococcal infection.
Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, limited clinical data show that oral minocycline hydrochloride has been used successfully in the treatment of infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of minocycline hydrochloride capsules and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or to any of the components of the product formulation.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. This has been reported with minocycline.
Central nervous system side effects including light-headedness, dizziness, or vertigo have been reported with minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually disappear rapidly when the drug is discontinued.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including minocycline, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults has been associated with the use of tetracyclines. The usual clinical manifestations are headache and blurred vision. Bulging fontanels have been associated with the use of tetracyclines in infants. While both of these conditions and related symptoms usually resolve after discontinuation of the tetracycline, the possibility for permanent sequelae exists.
Hepatotoxicity has been reported with minocycline; therefore, minocycline should be used with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction and in conjunction with other hepatotoxic drugs.
Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy when indicated.
Prescribing minocycline hydrochloride capsules in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
In venereal disease when coexistent syphilis is suspected, a dark-field examination should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least four months.
Periodic laboratory evaluations of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic should be performed.
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline-class drugs in conjunction with penicillin.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.
Administration of isotretinoin should be avoided shortly before, during, and shortly after minocycline therapy. Each drug alone has been associated with pseudotumor cerebri. (See PRECAUTIONS .)
Increased risk of ergotism when ergot alkaloids or their derivatives are given with tetracyclines.
False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Dietary administration of minocycline in long-term tumorigenicity studies in rats resulted in evidence of thyroid tumor production. Minocycline has also been found to produce thyroid hyperplasia in rats and dogs. In addition, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with a related antibiotic, oxytetracycline (i.e., adrenal and pituitary tumors). Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of minocycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays (i.e., mouse lymphoma and Chinese hamster lung cells) have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracycline hydrochloride and oxytetracycline). Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) studies have provided evidence that minocycline impairs fertility in male rats.
Pregnancy Category D. (See WARNINGS .)
All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of minocycline in pregnant women. Minocycline, like other tetracycline-class antibiotics, crosses the placenta and may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Rare spontaneous reports of congenital anomalies including limb reduction have been reported in post-marketing experience. Only limited information is available regarding these reports; therefore, no conclusion on causal association can be established. If minocycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
(See WARNINGS .)
The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from the tetracyclines, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. (See WARNINGS .)
Minocycline is not recommended for the use in children below 8 years of age unless the expected benefits of therapy outweigh the risks. (See WARNINGS .)
Clinical studies of oral minocycline did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. (See WARNINGS , DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Due to oral minocycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.
Body as a whole: Fever, and discoloration of secretions.
Skin: Alopecia, erythema nodosum, hyperpigmentation of nails, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis and vasculitis. Maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported. Fixed drug eruptions have been reported. Lesions occurring on the glans penis have caused balanitis. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS .) Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has been reported.
Respiratory: Cough, dyspnea, bronchospasm, exacerbation of asthma, and pneumonitis.
Renal toxicity: Interstitial nephritis. Elevations in BUN have been reported and are apparently dose related. (See WARNINGS .) Reversible acute renal failure has been reported.
Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthritis, bone discoloration, myalgia, joint stiffness, and joint swelling.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction (including shock and fatalities), anaphylactoid purpura, myocarditis, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia have been reported. A transient lupus-like syndrome and serum sickness-like reactions also have been reported.
Blood: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
Central nervous system: Convulsions, dizziness, hypesthesia, paresthesia, sedation, and vertigo. Bulging fontanels in infants and benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) in adults have been reported. (See PRECAUTIONS-General .) Headache has also been reported.
Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. Cases of abnormal thyroid function have been reported.
Tooth discoloration in children less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS ) and also, in adults has been reported.
Oral cavity discoloration (including tongue, lip, and gum) have been reported.
Tinnitus and decreased hearing have been reported in patients on minocycline hydrochloride.
The following syndromes have been reported. In some cases involving these syndromes, death has been reported. As with other serious adverse reactions, if any of these syndromes are recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately:
Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.
Lupus-like syndrome consisting of positive antinuclear antibody; arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling; and one or more of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, and vasculitis.
Serum sickness-like syndrome consisting of fever; urticaria or rash; and arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling. Eosinophilia may be present.
The adverse events more commonly seen in overdose are dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.
No specific antidote for minocycline is known.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Minocycline is not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF MINOCYCLINE DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS.
Minocycline hydrochloride capsules may be taken with or without food. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY .)
Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluids along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. The capsules should be swallowed whole.
For Pediatric Patients Above 8 Years of Age
Usual pediatric dose: 4 mg/kg initially followed by 2 mg/kg every 12 hours, not to exceed the usual adult dose.
The usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride is 200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours. Alternatively, if more frequent doses are preferred, two or four 50 mg capsules may be given initially followed by one 50 mg capsule 4 times daily.
Uncomplicated gonococcal infections other than urethritis and anorectal infections in men: 200 mg initially, followed by 100 mg every 12 hours for a minimum of 4 days, with post-therapy cultures within 2 to 3 days.
In the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men, 100 mg every 12 hours for 5 days is recommended.
For the treatment of syphilis, the usual dosage of minocycline hydrochloride should be administered over a period of 10 to 15 days. Close follow-up, including laboratory tests, is recommended.
In the treatment of meningococcal carrier state, the recommended dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours for 5 days.
Mycobacterium marinum infections: Although optimal doses have not been established, 100 mg every 12 hours for 6 to 8 weeks have been used successfully in a limited number of cases.
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum: 100 mg orally, every 12 hours for at least 7 days.
Ingestion of adequate amounts of fluids along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline-class is recommended to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules USP, equivalent to 50 mg minocycline are opaque yellow capsules imprinted MINOCYCLINE 50 and DAN 5694 supplied in bottles of 60 and 100.
Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules USP, equivalent to 75 mg minocycline are opaque white and opaque yellow capsules imprinted MINOCYCLINE 75 and WPI supplied in bottles of 100.
Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules USP, equivalent to 100 mg minocycline are opaque dark gray and opaque yellow capsules imprinted MINOCYCLINE 100 and DAN 5695 supplied in bottles of 50.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with child-resistant closure.
Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F). [See USP controlled room temperature.]
Protect from light, moisture and excessive heat.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema. This reaction has been reported with use of minocycline.
Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. (See WARNINGS .)
Concurrent use of tetracycline with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective. (See Drug Interactions .)
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including minocycline hydrochloride capsules should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When minocycline hydrochloride capsules are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by minocycline hydrochloride capsules or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Unused supplies of tetracycline antibiotics should be discarded by the expiration date.
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