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DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION, USP Rx Only | Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphates

05:56 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio
Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

DESCRIPTION

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP is a water-soluble inorganic ester of dexamethasone.

It occurs as a yellow crystalline powder, is odorless or has a slight odor of alcohol, is exceedingly hygroscopic, and is freely soluble in water.

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP is a synthetic adrenocortical steroid anti-inflammatory drug.

It has the following structural formula:

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP CHFNaOP, has a molecular weight of 516.41 and the chemical name 9-fluoro-11β,17,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-(dihydrogen phosphate) disodium salt.

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP 4 mg/mL is a sterile solution for intravenous, intramuscular, intra-articular, intralesional and soft tissue administration.

Each mL of the injection contains the following components:

IMAGE dex03-0004-01.jpg

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP has a rapid onset but short duration of action when compared with less soluble preparations. Because of this, it is suitable for the treatment of acute disorders responsive to adrenocortical steroid therapy.

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs, including dexamethasone, are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body's immune responses to diverse stimuli.

At equipotent anti-inflammatory doses, dexamethasone almost completely lacks the sodium-retaining property of hydrocortisone and closely related derivatives of hydrocortisone.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Systemic fungal infections. (See WARNINGS regarding amphotericin B)

Hypersensitivity to any component of this product, including sulfites (see WARNINGS ).

WARNINGS

Because rare instances of anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving parenteral corticosteroid therapy, appropriate precautionary measures should be taken prior to administration, especially when the patient has a history of allergy to any drug. Anaphylactoid and hypersensitivity reactions have been reported for Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ).

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP contains sodium bisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

Corticosteroids may exacerbate systemic fungal infections and therefore should not be used in the presence of such infections unless they are needed to control drug reactions due to amphotericin B. Moreover, there have been cases reported in which concomitant use of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone was followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive failure.

In patients on corticosteroid therapy subjected to any unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during, and after the stressful situation is indicated.

Drug-induced secondary adrenocortical insufficiency may result from too rapid withdrawal of corticosteroids and may be minimized by gradual reduction of dosage. This type of relative insufficiency may persist for months after discontinuation of therapy; therefore, in any situation of stress occurring during that period, hormone therapy should be reinstituted. If the patient is receiving steroids already, dosage may have to be increased. Since mineralocorticoid secretion may be impaired, salt and/or a mineralocorticoid should be administered concurrently.

Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. Moreover, corticosteroids may affect the nitroblue-tetrazolium test for bacterial infection and produce false negative results.

In cerebral malaria, a double-blind trial has shown that the use of corticosteroids is associated with prolongation of coma and a higher incidence of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Corticosteroids may activate latent amebiasis. Therefore, it is recommended that latent or active amebiasis be ruled out before initiating corticosteroid therapy in any patient who has spent time in the tropics or any patient with unexplained diarrhea.

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.

Average and large doses of cortisone or hydrocortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.

Administration of live virus vaccines, including smallpox, is contraindicated in individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. If inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines are administered to individuals receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids, the expected serum antibody response may not be obtained. However, immunization procedures may be undertaken in patients who are receiving corticosteroids as replacement therapy, e.g., for Addison's disease.

Persons who are on drugs which suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in non-immune children or adults on corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route and duration of corticosteroid administration affects the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information). If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.

The use of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.

If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.

Literature reports suggest an apparent association between use of corticosteroids and left ventricular free wall rupture after a recent myocardial infarction; therefore, therapy with corticosteroids should be used with great caution in these patients.

Usage in pregnancy. Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, use of these drugs in pregnancy or in women of childbearing potential requires that the anticipated benefits be weighed against the possible hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.

Corticosteroids appear in breast milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other unwanted effects. Mothers taking pharmacologic doses of corticosteroids should be advised not to nurse.

PRECAUTIONS

General

This product, like many other steroid formulations, is sensitive to heat. Therefore, it should not be autoclaved when it is desirable to sterilize the exterior of the vial.

Following prolonged therapy, withdrawal of corticosteroids may result in symptoms of the corticosteroid withdrawal syndrome including fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and malaise. This may occur in patients even without evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

There is an enhanced effect of corticosteroids in patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis.

Corticosteroids should be used cautiously in patients with ocular herpes simplex for fear of corneal perforation.

The lowest possible dose of corticosteroid should be used to control the condition under treatment, and when reduction in dosage is possible, the reduction must be gradual.

Psychic derangements may appear when corticosteroids are used, ranging from euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, personality changes, and severe depression to frank psychotic manifestations. Also, existing emotional instability or psychotic tendencies may be aggravated by corticosteroids.

Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia.

Steroids should be used with caution in nonspecific ulcerative colitis, if there is a probability of impending perforation, abscess or other pyogenic infection, also in diverticulitis, fresh intestinal anastomoses, active or latent peptic ulcer, renal insufficiency, hypertension, osteoporosis, and myasthenia gravis. Signs of peritoneal irritation following gastrointestinal perforation in patients receiving large doses of corticosteroids may be minimal or absent. Fat embolism has been reported as a possible complication of hypercortisonism.

When large doses are given, some authorities advise that antacids be administered between meals to help to prevent peptic ulcer.

Growth and development of infants and children on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should be carefully followed.

Steroids may increase or decrease motility and number of spermatozoa in some patients.

Phenytoin, phenobarbital, ephedrine, and rifampin may enhance the metabolic clearance of corticosteroids resulting in decreased blood levels and lessened physiologic activity, thus requiring adjustment in corticosteroid dosage. These interactions may interfere with dexamethasone suppression tests which should be interpreted with caution during administration of these drugs.

False negative results in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in patients being treated with indomethacin have been reported. Thus, results of the DST should be interpreted with caution in these patients.

The prothrombin time should be checked frequently in patients who are receiving corticosteroids and coumarin anticoagulants at the same time because of reports that corticosteroids have altered the response to these anticoagulants. Studies have shown that the usual effect produced by adding corticosteroids is inhibition of response to coumarins, although there have been some conflicting reports of potentiation not substantiated by studies.

When corticosteroids are administered concomitantly with potassium-depleting diuretics, patients should be observed closely for development of hypokalemia.

Intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid may produce systemic as well as local effects.

Appropriate examination of any joint fluid present is necessary to exclude a septic process.

A marked increase in pain accompanied by local swelling, further restriction of joint motion, fever and malaise is suggestive of septic arthritis. If this complication occurs and the diagnosis of sepsis is confirmed, appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be instituted.

Injection of a steroid into an infected site is to be avoided.

Corticosteroids should not be injected into unstable joints.

Patients should be impressed strongly with the importance of not overusing joints in which symptomatic benefit has been obtained as long as the inflammatory process remains active.

Frequent intra-articular injection may result in damage to joint tissues.

The slower rate of absorption by intramuscular administration should be recognized.

Information for Patients

Persons who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles. Patients should also be advised that if they are exposed, medical advice should be sought without delay.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

Musculoskeletal

Gastrointestinal

Dermatologic

Neurologic

Endocrine

Ophthalmic

Metabolic

Cardiovascular

Other

OVERDOSAGE

Reports of acute toxicity and/or death following overdosage of glucocorticoids are rare. In the event of overdosage, no specific antidote is available; treatment is supportive and symptomatic.

The oral LD of dexamethasone in female mice was 6.5 g/kg. The intravenous LD of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in female mice was 794 mg/kg.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP, 4 mg/mL -- For intravenous, intramuscular, intra-articular, intralesional, and soft tissue injection.

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP can be given directly from the vial, or it can be added to Sodium Chloride Injection or Dextrose Injection and administered by intravenous drip.

Solutions used for intravenous administration or further dilution of this product should be preservative-free when used in the neonate, especially the premature infant.

When it is mixed with an infusion solution, sterile precautions should be observed. Since infusion solutions generally do not contain preservatives, mixtures should be used within 24 hours.

DOSAGE REQUIREMENTS ARE VARIABLE AND MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED ON THE BASIS OF THE DISEASE AND THE RESPONSE OF THE PATIENT.

Intravenous and Intramuscular Injection

The initial dosage of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection varies from 0.5 to 9 mg a day depending on the disease being treated. In less severe diseases doses lower than 0.5 mg may suffice, while in severe diseases doses higher than 9 mg may be required.

The initial dosage should be maintained or adjusted until the patient's response is satisfactory. If a satisfactory clinical response does not occur after a reasonable period of time, discontinue Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP and transfer the patient to other therapy.

After a favorable initial response, the proper maintenance dosage should be determined by decreasing the initial dosage in small amounts to the lowest dosage that maintains an adequate clinical response.

Patients should be observed closely for signs that might require dosage adjustment, including changes in clinical status resulting from remissions or exacerbations of the disease, individual drug responsiveness, and the effect of stress (e.g., surgery, infection, trauma). During stress it may be necessary to increase dosage temporarily.

If the drug is to be stopped after more than a few days of treatment, it usually should be withdrawn gradually.

When the intravenous route of administration is used, dosage usually should be the same as the oral dosage. In certain overwhelming, acute, life-threatening situations, however, administration in dosages exceeding the usual dosages may be justified and may be in multiples of the oral dosages. The slower rate of absorption by intramuscular administration should be recognized.

Shock

There is a tendency in current medical practice to use high (pharmacologic) doses of corticosteroids for the treatment of unresponsive shock. The following dosages of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection have been suggested by various authors:

Although adverse reactions associated with high dose, short term corticosteroid therapy are uncommon, peptic ulceration may occur.

Administration of high dose corticosteroid therapy should be continued only until the patient's condition has stabilized and usually not longer than 48 to 72 hours.

*1. Cavanagh, D.; Singh, K.B.: Endotoxin shock in pregnancy and abortion, in: ``Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Shock′′, Schumer, W.; Nyhus, L.M., Editors, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1970, pp.86-96.
2. Dietzman, R.H.; Ersek, R.A.; Bloch, J.M.; Lillehei, R. C.: High-output, low-resistance gram-negative septic shock in man, Angiology 20: 691-700. Dec. 1969.
3. Frank, E.: Clinical observations in shock and management (In: Shields, T.F., ed.: Symposium on current concepts and management of shock), J. Maine Med. Ass. 59: 195-200. Oct. 1968.
4. Oaks, W. W.; Cohen, H.E.: Endotoxin shock in the geriatric patient, Geriat. 22: 120-130. Mar. 1967.
5. Schumer, W.; Nyhus, L.M.: Corticosteroid effect on biochemical parameters of human oligemic shock, Arch. Surg. 100: 405-408. Apr. 1970.
Author* Dosage
Cavanagh1 3 mg/kg of body weight per 24 hours by constant intravenous infusion after an initial intravenous injection of 20 mg
Dietzman2 2 to 6 mg/kg of body weight as a single intravenous injection
Frank3 40 mg initially followed by repeat intravenous injection every 4 to 6 hours while shock persists
Oaks4 40 mg initially followed by repeat intravenous injection every 2 to 6 hours while shock persists
Schumer5 1 mg/kg of body weight as a single intravenous injection

Cerebral Edema

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP is generally administered initially in a dosage of 10 mg intravenously followed by four mg every six hours intramuscularly until the symptoms of cerebral edema subside. Response is usually noted within 12 to 24 hours and dosage may be reduced after two to four days and gradually discontinued over a period of five to seven days. For palliative management of patients with recurrent or inoperable brain tumors, maintenance therapy with two mg two or three times a day may be effective.

Acute Allergic Disorders

In acute, self-limited allergic disorders or acute exacerbations of chronic allergic disorders, the following dosage schedule combining parenteral and oral therapy is suggested:

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP, 4 mg/mL: first day, 1 or 2 mL (4 or 8 mg), intramuscularly.

This schedule is designed to ensure adequate therapy during acute episodes, while minimizing the risk of overdosage in chronic cases.

Dexamethasone tablets, 0.75 mg: second and third days, 4 tablets in two divided doses each day; Fourth day, 2 tablets in two divided doses; fifth and sixth days, 1 tablet each day; seventh day, no treatment; eighth day, follow-up visit.

Intra-articular, Intralesional, and Soft Tissue Injection

Intra-articular, intralesional, and soft tissue injections are generally employed when the affected joints or areas are limited to one or two sites. Dosage and frequency of injection varies depending on the condition and the site of injection. The usual dose is from 0.2 to 6 mg. The frequency usually ranges from once every three to five days to once every two to three weeks. Frequent intra-articular injection may result in damage to joint tissues.

Some of the usual single doses are:

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP is particularly recommended for use in conjunction with one of the less soluble, longer-acting steroids for intra-articular and soft tissue injection.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever the solution and container permit.

Site of Injection Amount of
Dexamethasone sodium
phosphate
(mg)
Large Joints
(e.g., Knee)
2 to 4
Small Joints
(e.g., Interphalangeal,
Temporomandibular)
0.8 to 1
Bursae 2 to 3
Tendon Sheaths 0.4 to 1
Soft Tissue Infiltration 2 to 6
Ganglia 1 to 2

HOW SUPPLIED

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP 4 mg/mL

Store at 20° - 25°C (68° - 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F) (See USP Controlled Room Temperature).

Sensitive to heat - Do not autoclave.

IN4901 Rev. 12/09 MG #10095

AMERICANREGENT, INC.SHIRLEY, NY 11967

NDC 0517-4901-25 1 mL Single Dose Vial Boxes of 25
NDC 0517-4905-25 5 mL Multiple Dose Vial Boxes of 25
NDC 0517-4930-25 30 mL Multiple Dose Vial Boxes of 25

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 1 mL Label

NDC 0517-4901-25

DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION, USP

4 mg/mL (Dexamethasone Phosphate Equivalent)

1 mL SINGLE DOSE VIAL

FOR IV OR IM USE*

Rx Only

AMERICAN REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

IMAGE dex03-0004-02.jpg

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 5mL Label

NDC 0517-4905-25

DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION, USP

20 mg/5 mL (4mg/mL)

(Dexamethasone Phosphate Equivalent)

5 mL MULTIPLE DOSE VIAL

FOR IV OR IM USE*

Rx Only

AMERICAN REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

IMAGE dex03-0004-03.jpg

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 30 mL Label

NDC 0517-4930-25

DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION, USP

120 mg/30 mL (4 mg/mL)

(Dexamethasone Phosphate Equivalent)

30 mL MULTIPLE DOSE VIAL

FOR IV, IM, INTRA-ARTICULAR, SOFT TISSUE OR INTRALESIONAL USE

Rx Only

AMERICAN REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

IMAGE dex03-0004-04.jpg

Manufacturer

American Regent, Inc.

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