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Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare PubMed Articles

09:09 EDT 18th April 2014 | BioPortfolio

The Freiburger Speech Test (FST) has been the gold standard in speech testing by word recognition score in Germany for many years. Recently, it has been demonstrated that for an amount of 104 test-persons there is no significant deviation within the lists. The objective of this study was to determine the percentiles of the distinct measuring situations in quiet and with noise (e.g. applied in hear...

Air conduction (AC) is accompanied by displacements of the two cochlear windows, bulk fluid flow between them, a pressure difference across the basilar membrane, leading to a passive traveling wave along the membrane, which activates the cochlear amplifier and enhances the displacements. AC interacts with bone conduction (BC) stimulation, so that it has been assumed that BC stimulation also involv...

For most bones, elongation is driven primarily by chondrogenesis at the growth plates. This process results from chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and extracellular matrix secretion and is carefully orchestrated by complex networks of local paracrine factors and modulated by endocrine factors. We review here recent advances in the understanding of growth plate physiology. These advances incl...

Somatostatin (SS) and urotensin II (UII) are members of two families of structurally related neuropeptides present in all vertebrates. They exert a large array of biological activities that are mediated by two families of G-protein-coupled receptors called SSTR and UTS2R, respectively. It is proposed that the two families of peptides as well as those of their receptors likely derive from a single...

Breast cancer is traditionally viewed as an estrogen-dependent disease in which the androgen receptor is inhibitory, counteracting the oncogenic activity of estrogen receptor-α. Most likely as a result of this cross-talk, the androgen receptor has prognostic value in estrogen receptor positive disease, with androgen receptor positivity reported to correlate with a better prognosis. Activation of...

Discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) are unusual receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are activated by fibrillar collagens instead of soluble growth factors. DDRs play an important role in various cellular functions and disease processes, including malignant progression. Compared with other RTKs, DDRs have relatively long juxtamembrane domains, which are believed to contribute to receptor function....

Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-O3PUFAs) exhibit therapeutic potential for the treatment and prevention of the neurological deficits associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the mechanisms implicated in these protective responses remain unclear. The objective of the present functional metabolomics study was to identify and define the dominant metabolic pathways targete...

IGF-1 plays a role in the growth of multiple tumor types, including pancreatic cancer. IGF-1 also serves as a growth factor for muscle. The impact of therapeutic targeting of IGF-1 on muscle mass is unknown.

Osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity are commonly observed in the process of aging, and recent evidence suggests a potential interconnection of these syndromes with common pathophysiology. The term osteosarcopenic obesity has been coined to describe the concurrent appearance of obesity in individuals with low bone and muscle mass. Although our understanding of osteosarcopenic obesity's...

The electrical conductivity of a series of pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, functionalized with a nitrile (cyano) group at the end of an alkyl chain attached to the cation, was studied in the temperature range between 173 K and 393 K. The glass formation of the ionic liquids is influenced by the length of the alkyl spacer separating the nitrile function from the pyrro...

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are a group of phloem-feeding insects numbering more than 5 000 extant species (Favret, 2014a). Most species have complex life cycles that include both asexual (viviparous parthenogenesis) and sexual reproduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The last couple of years have seen the beginning of a new era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This disease is typically characterized by its poor prognosis and limited choice of therapy. Two mechanistically diverse classes of agents - BRAF inhibitors and immune modulators - have demonstrated an overall survival benefit. Along with their significant clinical benefits, there are also unique...

Molluscum contagiosum is a poxvirus infection of the skin that is commonly observed in children. The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) expresses several gene-products that are involved in its pathogenesis and evasion of the host immune system. MCV can be transmitted both to other sites of the body and to other individuals through direct physical contact as well as fomites. While diagnosis is gener...

Given the pace of discovery in medicine, accessing the literature to make informed decisions at the point of care has become increasingly difficult. Although the Internet creates unprecedented access to information, gaps in the medical literature and inefficient searches often leave healthcare providers' questions unanswered. Advances in social computation and human computer interactions offer a p...

Shewanella putrefaciens has been identified as a specific spoilage organism commonly found in chilled fresh fish, which contributes to the spoilage of fish products. Limiting S. putrefaciens growth can extend the shelf-life of chilled fish. Endolysins, which are lytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages, have been considered an alternative to control bacterial growth, and have been useful in variou...

Background: Endovascular approach to superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease, the most common cause of symptomatic PAD, remains fraught with high failure rates. Newer devices including second-generation nitinol stents, drug-coated stents, drug-coated balloons, covered stents, cryo-therapy, LASER and directional atherectomy, have shown promising results. Clinical equipoise still persists regarding...

We report a detailed analysis on the use of simultaneous substrate heating in conjunction with scanning thermal lithography (SThL) to dramatically increase the patterning speed of conventional SThL systems. The investigation consists of finite element simulations as well as practical assessments of the speed at which different organic precursors are thermally converted to produce standalone electr...

The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phy...

Despite a history of conceptual contributions to reducing health inequalities by addressing the social determinants of health (SDH), Canadian governmental authorities have struggled to put these concepts into action. Ontario's-Canada's most populous province-public health scene shows a similar pattern. In statements and reports, governmental ministries, professional associations and local public h...

Endoscopic self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) placement as a bridge to surgery is an option for acute malignant colonic obstruction. There is ongoing debate regarding the superiority and oncological safety of SEMS placement compared with emergency surgery. This retrospective study aimed to compare outcomes of these treatment approaches.

The purpose of this review is to evaluate research regarding whether women with heart failure (HF) need a special approach for improving their adherence to self-care. Prior research has sampled mostly white, male populations and these results have been generalized to the population of all HF patients. After age 65, women are at a higher risk than men for developing HF. Once women develop HF they a...

Adipogenesis is associated with the upregulation of the antioxidative enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) suggesting a vital function of this enzyme in adipocyte maturation. In the current work, MnSOD was knocked-down with small-interference RNA in preadipocytes to study its role in adipocyte differentiation. In mature adipocytes differentiated from these cells, proteins characteristic f...

Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Di...

The present study was designed to investigate the role of glycine in ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The AKI was induced in rats by occluding renal pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The AKI was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, plasma uric acid, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria. The...

The menopause has a negative effect in the skin. Melatonin affects skin functions and structures through actions mediated by cell-surface and putative-nuclear receptors expressed in skin cell. We have therefore determined the effects of melatonin treatment on stem cell in the epidermis and extracellular matrix related molecules in the dermis the skin of postmenopausal rats. A total of 45 female ra...

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