Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare PubMed Articles

22:28 EDT 2nd September 2015 | BioPortfolio

Prior fMRI studies have identified multiple face-selective regions in the human cortex but the functional division of labor between these regions is not yet clear. One hypothesis that has gained some empirical support is that face-selective regions in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) preferentially respond to the dynamic aspects of faces, whereas the fusiform face area (FFA) computes the static ...

The FFA is a functionally defined, domain specific brain region in the service of face perception. It has also been shown that the FFA may also subserve the perception of other categories of objects, namely objects of expertise. Here, we present evidence that the FFA, defined using a standard face localizer task (faces > houses), can respond to a non-face category equivalently to faces even whe...

Recent behavioral studies showed that moving faces optimize face processing efficiency by facilitating part-based face processing as opposed to static faces (Xiao et al., 2012 & 2013). However, the mechanism of this facial movement facilitation effect is less clear. This study using functional near-inferred spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology explored the neural mechanisms underlying this moving face...

The ability to recognize familiar faces across different viewing conditions contrasts with the inherent difficulty in the perception of unfamiliar faces across similar image manipulations. It is believed that this difference is based on the neural representation for familiar faces being less sensitive to changes in the image than it is for unfamiliar faces. Here, we used a fMR-adaptation paradigm ...

The visual quality of face and body information varies continually as we observe a person approach from a distance. We investigated whether and when neural responses to familiar and unfamiliar people could be discriminated in face- and body-selective brain regions during an approach. Participants were familiarized with identities using close-up and distant videos of the individuals. Next, in an fM...

The response to non-face objects in the face selective fusiform face area (FFA) can predict behavioral performance for these objects, but such results are often disregarded because experts may pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise. We report an effect of expertise with objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention. We relate regional cortical thickness (rCT...

The Rubin's vase illusion evokes a bistable perception that alters between a pair of faces or a vase. In this study we looked at the oscillatory and network level effects that could differentiate between these two perceptions. Thus, tackling the issue of what leads to conscious access and, thus resulting in perceptual dominance between two competing signals. We conducted a study within the MEG, du...

Face perception involves a large set of regions distributed along the ventral temporal cortex and thus represents an interesting model to help understanding how visual information is processed along the ventral visual pathway. Here we shed light on the functional organization of this cortical network by recording focal intracerebral electroencephalogram in 20 epileptic patients implanted with dept...

Human adults show better face recognition for own-race faces than other-race faces (e.g., Feingold, 1914; Meissner & Bringham, 2001). Developmental studies revealed that this recognition bias for own-race faces emerges in infancy (for a review, see Lee et al., 2011). At three months of age, infants can discriminate as readily between two own-race faces as between two other-race faces (Kelly et al....

Changes in the outer contour of a face act as a cue to face viewpoint, and these changes can be captured using radial frequency (RF) pattern stimuli (Wilson et al., 2000). The face viewpoint aftereffect (FVA) is a visual illusion where adaptation to a left-facing face causes a front-facing face to appear as right-facing and vice versa (Fang and He, 2005). The occipital face area (OFA) has been imp...

Movements of the face play an important role in social communication. For example, changes in facial expression provide information on emotional state, whereas changes in viewpoint convey information about the direction of attention. Our aim was to determine whether there are distinct neural representations for different types of facial movement and whether these representations interact. We used ...

The recovery of perceptual functions that occur following cortical damage can offer key insights into the nature and plasticity of brain organization. In this respect, studies of individuals post-lobectomy/hemispherectomy offer a unique window into the nature and extent of cortical plasticity. First, in contrast with more common lesions, the extent of the damage in such patients can be extreme (i....

Two well-known cortical networks support attention function - a dorsal attention network (DAN) for sustained, goal-directed attention and a ventral attention network (VAN) responsible for transient attentional shifts (Corbetta & Shulman, 2002). While the DAN is readily localizable in the brains of individual subjects by any of a number of attentionally demanding paradigms, the components of the VA...

When certain distractors (old items) appear before others (new items) during an inefficient visual search task, observers exclude the old items from the search if the target always appears as a new item (preview benefit). This effect is said to occur because of inhibitory visual marking (VM) for old objects in addition to attentional capture (AC) to new objects (Watson & Humphreys, 1997). However,...

The current study examined the relationship between endogenous, exogenous, and symbolic attention as it relates to working memory and attentional allocation. Previous research has established that exogenous cues result in early facilitation and later inhibition at cued locations (Posner & Cohen, 1984). In contrast, endogenous cues result in long-lasting facilitation, but not IOR, when responding t...

It is well established that emotional distractors enhance attentional control in demanding tasks such as the classic attentional blink paradigm (Olivers & Nieuwenhuis, 2005; Sussman, Heller, Miller, & Mohanty, 2013). By inducing a range of moods using music and memory generation, it has also been shown that the interaction of emotional valence and level of arousal have unique effects on second-tar...

Recent research has shown that discrimination of a barely visible stimulus is greatly enhanced following exposure to a clear version of this stimulus (Ahissar & Hochstein, 2004; Lin & Murray, 2014). However, whether such enhancement affects only conscious perception of the critical stimulus or also the extent to which it is processed and can indirectly affect behavior has not been addressed. Here,...

Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice unexpected objects when attention is occupied by a demanding cover task (Mack & Rock, 1998). It was widely assumed that a demanding cover task was necessary for inattentional blindness to occur. However, recent research (Eitam, Yeshurun, & Hassan, 2013) suggests that even under minimal attentional load, observers have reduced awareness of objects th...

Given the increased attentional and perceptual abilities exhibited by action video game players (AVGPs) (Green & Bavelier, 2003; Clark, Fleck, & Mitroff, 2011), it seems reasonable to expect them to perform differently on an inattentional blindness (IB) task from a non-gaming population. We explored whether this was the case. Using the Mack & Rock (1998) IB cross procedure, AVGPs (n=15) and non-vi...

Most et al. (2001) demonstrated that an unexpected object (UEO) is noticed when it is similar to the target but dissimilar to the distractors. The authors concluded that inattentional blindness is influenced by attentional sets based on relationships among targets and distractors (e.g., lighter or darker). The present study further examined the role of relational attentional sets in inattentional ...

When engaged in an attention-demanding task, Observers (Os) often miss stimuli that would otherwise be perfectly obvious, like a dancing gorilla or a clown on a unicycle, a finding known as Inattentional Blindness (IB). Previous work has shown noticing rates for unexpected stimuli increase as the similarity to the target increases: when tracking white items, Os are much more likely to notice an un...

Attention naturally fluctuates when it needs to be sustained for long periods of time. These fluctuations have immediate consequences for performance on current tasks, but their consequences for the encoding of current information into visual long-term memory (VLTM) are less well understood. In particular, although the effects of selective attention and divided attention on memory have been explor...

When a change occurs during steady viewing it produces a transient that attracts attention, thereby allowing an observer to notice the change. If, however, a change occurs simultaneously with the onset of a set of distractors, the distractors also produce transients that compete for attention, the change becomes difficult to detect resulting in "change blindness" (Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1999)....

It is well supported that target templates held in visual short-term memory guide visual search (Desimone & Duncan, 1995; Wolfe, 1994). We investigated how template precision is affected by search context. Following previous research, participants searched RSVP streams for an orange letter and reported its presence or absence (Anderson, 2014). In different blocks, distractor letters were either si...

An inability to notice an extra salient item once the attention is engaged in some other task, called Inattentional Blindness (IB; Mack & Rock, 1998), is widely used in research on visual awareness. However, the neuroimaging of IB is limited due to technical issues, including the possible number of trials per subject. Since the IB decreases once the participant is informed about the effect, a sing...


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