Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare PubMed Articles

14:42 EST 1st February 2015 | BioPortfolio

The ability to represent concepts and the relationships between them is critical to human cognition. How does the brain code relationships between items that share basic conceptual properties (e.g., dog and wolf) while simultaneously representing associative links between dissimilar items that co-occur in particular contexts (e.g., dog and bone)? To clarify the neural bases of these semantic compo...

Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80 % of cas...

When testing primates with cognitive tasks, it is usually not considered that subjects differ markedly in terms of emotional reactivity toward the experimenter, which potentially affects a subject's cognitive performance. We addressed this issue in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a monkey species in which males tend to show stronger emotional reactivity in testing situations, whereas female...

A new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac™) has been developed to combat devastating serogroup A Neisseria meningitis (MenA) epidemics in Africa. A mass immunization campaign targeting 1-29 year olds was conducted in Burkina Faso in December 2010. Protection of subsequent infant cohorts will be necessary through either introduction of PsA-TT into the routine Expanded ...

In this study, we attenuated a Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain, YX10, by passaging through fertilized chicken eggs. The 90th passage strain (YX10p90) was selected as the live-attenuated vaccine candidate strain. YX10p90 was found to be safe in 7-day-old specific pathogen free chickens without induction of morbidity or mortality. YX10p90 provided nearly com...

A new conceptualization of the process of stress assignment, couched in the principles of (Bayesian) probabilistic inference, is introduced in this paper. According to this approach, in deciding where to place stress in a polysyllabic word, a reader estimates the posterior probabilities of alternative stress patterns. This estimation is accomplished by adjusting a prior belief about the likelihood...

In Arabidopsis thaliana multiple genes involved in Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM) transitions have been characterized, but the mechanisms required for the dynamic attainment of vegetative-, inflorescence- and flower meristem (VM, IM, FM) cell-fates during SAM transitions are not well understood. Here we show that a MADS-box gene, XAANTAL2 (XAL2/AGL14), is necessary and sufficient to induce flowering ...

Infectious diseases pose a major challenge in the elderly for two reasons: on the one hand the susceptibility to infection increases with age and when infections occur they often present atypically-on the other hand diagnostic uncertainty is much more pronounced in the geriatric population. Reconciling the opposing aspects of optimizing patient outcomes while avoiding antibiotic overuse requires s...

As people are living longer the demand for long-term care facilities (LTCFs) continues to rise. For many reasons, antimicrobials are used intensively in LTCFs, with up to a half of this use considered inappropriate or unnecessary. Over-use of antimicrobials can have direct adverse consequences for LTCF residents and promotes the development and spread of resistant bacteria. It is therefore critica...

Infectious diseases are more prevalent in older people than in younger adults, and represent a major healthcare issue in older populations. Indeed, infections in the elderly are often associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and may present atypically. Additionally, older patients are generally treated with polypharmacy regimens, which increase the likelihood of drug-drug interactions when ...

Maximal antibiotic treatment for all patients suspected of harbouring a bacterial infection is non-viable, because it will rapidly induce resistance and exhaust this finite resource. This raises two ethical dilemmas: the question of whether we are justified in increasing the danger to a present, named, patient so as to benefit future, unknown, patients; and whether we are allowed to do so without ...

Carriers of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are increasingly recognised through active surveillance in much of the world. We studied incidence, aetiology and predictors of bloodstream infections (BSI) among such carriers. Via a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, we examined occurrence of BSI within 45 days of CRKP carrier detection. Three n...

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of acute otitis media (AOM). The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in antibiotic resistance and circulating serotypes of pneumococci isolated from middle ear fluid of French children with AOM during the period 2001-2011, before and after the introduction of the PCV-7 (2003) and PCV-13 (2010) vaccines. Between 2001 and 2011 the French pneumococc...

The relationship of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections and survival among solid organ transplant recipients is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure the impact of NTM infection on survival in this patient population, comparing the effect of Mycobacterium abscessus infection with that of infections due to other pathogenic NTM species. We identified 33 patients wi...

Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Among other alternatives to standard treatment with vancomycin for recurrent infection are faecal microbiota transplantation and rectal bacteriotherapy with a fixed mixture of intestinal bacterial strains isolated from faeces of healthy persons to mimic a theoretical normal microflora. Developed by Dr. Tvede and Dr. R...

The aim of this study was to determine whether ertapenem, being highly protein bound, is less effective than other carbapenems in the presence of hypoalbuminemia. In a prospective cohort study, we included adults with clinically and microbiologically documented infections caused by carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae who were hospitalized in a tertiary medical center from March 2010 to Septe...

Isoniazid mono-resistance is the most common first-line drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB), but its treatment outcome remains unclear. From January 2004 to October 2011, 425 (5.1%) of 8414 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB from four hospitals in Taiwan were identified as having isoniazid mono-resistant TB. Among them, 395 (92.9%) were included and followed up for 2 years after complet...

The exact incidence of extra-cardiac complications (ECC) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) is unknown but presumed to be high. These patients, although mostly asymptomatic, may require a more aggressive therapeutic approach. (18)fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is used for the diagnosis of infections, but its role in the early diagnosis of...

In patients with malignancies, Candida glabrata is one of the most frequent non-albicans Candida clinical isolates. As antifungal resistance in C. glabrata is common, we investigated the relationship between early appropriate antifungal treatment, infectious disease (ID) consultation and mortality in a contemporary cohort of cancer patients with C. glabrata fungaemia. We included patients with a...

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare disease in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Therefore, little is known about the risk factors and disease behavior in the transplant setting. This multicenter, matched case-control study (1:2 ratio) was designed to determine the risk factors, clinical features and outcomes of VL among this population. Control and case subjects were matched by center, t...

After a primary infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) remains latent in certain human cells. Different stimuli, including immune deficiency and severe infection, can trigger the reactivation of latent HCMV infection. In the last decade, the role of the reactivation in immunocompetent patients with serious illness has been intensely studied; however, the knowledge of the potential role of moderat...

We characterized maraviroc susceptibility of dual/mixed tropic viruses from subjects enrolled onto phase IIb study A4001029. Maraviroc baseline plasma samples from 13 multidrug-experienced subjects were sequenced and the HIV-1-env gene cloned into pNL4.3Δenv to obtain recombinant viruses. The V3 region was sequenced by the Sanger method and ultradeep sequencing. By analysing subjects having a wei...

In this single-centre, retrospective study, we analyzed data of 194 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with

We characterized transmitted drug resistance to rilpivirine and the predicted efficacy of first-line rilpivirine-containing regimens in antiretroviral-naive Spanish patients. International Antiviral Society-USA mutations were detected in 138 of 2781 patients (4.9%), E138A (3.4%) being the most prevalent. Using the Stanford Algorithm, 121 patients (4.4%) showed low-level or intermediate resistance....

Search BioPortfolio:
Loading
Advertisement
Advertisement