Latest Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical and Healthcare PubMed Articles

15:58 EDT 20th September 2014 | BioPortfolio

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most challenging tumors to treat due to high proliferation rate, early metastatic dissemination and rapid development of chemotherapy resistance. The current treatment protocols involve the use of topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) poisons such as irinotecan and topotecan in combination with platinum-based compounds. TOP1 poisons kill cancer cells by trapping TOP1 o...

Skeletal muscle (SKM) atrophy is a potentially debilitating condition induced by muscle disuse, denervation, many disease states, and aging. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) contributes greatly to the protein loss suffered in muscle atrophy. The MERG1a K(+) channel is known to induce UPP activity and atrophy in SKM. It has been further demonstrated that the mouse ether-a-gogo-related gene (M...

Adult stem cells are characterised by longer telomeres compared to mature cells from the same tissue. In this study, candidate CD146 (+) umbilical cord (UC) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were purified by cell sorting from UC tissue digests and their telomere lengths were measured in comparison to donor-matched CD146-negative fraction. UC tissue fragments were enzymatically treated with collagenase...

Dendrograms are graphical representations of binary tree structures resulting from agglomerative hierarchical clustering. In Life Science, a cluster heat map is a widely accepted visualization technique that utilizes the leaf order of a dendrogram to reorder the rows and columns of the data table. The derived linear order is more meaningful than a random order, because it groups similar items ...

ABO-incompatible live donor liver transplant (ABOi-LDLT) is being widely done to bridge the gap of demand and supply of organs. Different desensitization regimes are being used to reduce titer of blood group antibodies for successful transplant and accommodation of graft. The authors used cascade plasmapheresis (CP) to bring down titer of naturally occurring blood group antibody to 16 or lower.

Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark sk...

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a well known cause of chronic liver disease in adults, but the burden of HCV in pregnant women and children is underappreciated. The leading route of HCV acquisition in children is vertical transmission. This review will discuss previous studies on the impact of HCV on pregnancy, risk factors for perinatal transmission, HCV transmission rates from mother to infant, what ...

Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2), both alpha herpesviruses, are highly prevalent worldwide. Both HSV types commonly cause genital infection, which, when acquired or reactivated during pregnancy, carries with it the risk of transmission to the fetus or neonate. Women who acquire primary or first-episode genital herpes during pregnancy are at greater risk for tra...

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs transplacentally (congenital infection), during birth and through breast milk, although the latter 2 modes of transmission are not associated with the central nervous system sequelae that occur with congenital infection. CMV persists indefinitely in its human host, and MTCT can occur if the mother was infected in the past or durin...

Although human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) were described over 30 years ago, they are relatively unknown to the public and even to healthcare personnel. Although HTLV-1 is associated with severe illnesses, these occur in only approximately 10% of infected individuals, which may explain the lack of public knowledge about them. However, cohort studies are showing that a myriad of other ...

Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

Added: 2014-09-01 08:00:00

Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity a...

Among the world's most neglected tropical diseases, Chagas disease is vector-borne and caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. T cruzi infection is endemic to South and Central America as well as Mexico. Due to population migration, T cruzi is increasingly becoming a public health problem in nonendemic settings. Success with vector control strategies has led to a relative increase in the burden attributable ...

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the most common form of chronic hepatitis worldwide, is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 360 million people globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. An estimated 15%-40% of persons chronically infected develop HBV-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepat...

Innovations in mobile and electronic healthcare are revolutionizing the involvement of both doctors and patients in the modern healthcare system by extending the capabilities of physiological monitoring devices. Despite significant progress within the monitoring device industry, the widespread integration of this technology into medical practice remains limited. The purpose of this review is to su...

In 2009, the Belgian National Institute of Health and Disability Insurance established a care trajectory (CT) for a subgroup of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) based on Wagner's chronic care model. The goal of this CT is to optimise the quality of care using an integrated multidisciplinary approach. This study aims to identify patient-related factors associated with inclusion in a CT and ...

Renal sympathetic denervation has recently gained clinical relevance for the treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension. Denervation is currently mainly performed using catheter-based transarterial radiofrequency ablation of periarterial sympathetic nerve fibers. Since this approach has numerous limitations, we conducted a study to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of magnetic resona...

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain by preventing the entry of large molecules; this poses a major obstacle for the delivery of drugs to the brain. A novel technique using focused ultrasound (FUS) energy combined with microbubble contrast agents has been widely used for non-invasive trans-cranial BBB opening. Traditionally, FUS research is conducted with magnetic resonance imaging (MR...

Occlusion of blood vessels using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a potential treatment for arteriovenous malformations and other neurovascular disorders. However, attempting HIFU-induced vessel occlusion can also cause vessel rupture, resulting in hemorrhage. Possible rupture mechanisms include mechanical effects of acoustic cavitation and heating of the vessel wall.

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a kind of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a critical role in the initiation and development of malignant tumors via modulating downstream signaling pathways. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the activating mutations located in the tyrosine kinase domains of EGFR have been demonstrated in multiple researches as the "Achilles' heel" of t...

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. It is an aggressive primary brain neoplasm, associated with a poor prognosis and median survival of less than 1 year. Approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with malignant gliomas in the United States are over the age of 65. Advancing age and poor performance status are two variables that have found to neg...

Members of the Peroxiredoxin (Prx) family are major cellular antioxidants that scavenge hydrogen peroxide and play essential roles in oxidative stress and cell signaling. 2-Cys Prxs, including Prx1, 2, 3 and 4, have been indicated in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways and thus may contribute to various processes of cancer development. The significance of 2-Cys Prxs in lung cancer development an...

Recent evidence suggests the involvement of sex hormone receptors in bladder cancer initiation, while precise functions of androgens and estrogens in the carcinogenesis step remain poorly understood. We recently found down-regulation of GATA3, a zinc-finger transcription factor and a new urothelial marker, in bladder cancer, which also correlated with expression status of androgen receptor (AR) an...

Despite recent advances in the treatment of malignant glomas, the prognosis of patients remains very poor and more efficient therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated whether 2-(naphthalene-1-yl)-6-pyrrolidinyl-4-quinazolinone (MJ-66), a synthetic quinazolinone analog, induces glioma cell death through DNA damage. Treatment of C6 glioma cells with MJ-66 resu...

Chronic inflammation is a well-recognized pathogenic factor in tumor initiation and progression. Mice lacking the pro-oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 were shown to be protected from both colitis-associated and epidermal cancers induced by the AOM/DSS and DMBA/TPA protocols, respectively. However, these murine models did not distinguish between the two STAT3 isoforms, the full-length STAT3α, ...

Compared to current treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), the extraction of solubilised mucin through peritoneal catheter can be minimally invasive. However, mucin has variable appearance that may influence mucolysis. Hence, we investigated the mucolysis of 36 mucin samples with a novel agent. Using visual inspection and hardness index, PMP mucin was classified into three grades. The mucin p...

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