Glycosaminoglycans as Key Molecules in Atherosclerosis: The Role of Versican and Hyaluronan.
Summary of "Glycosaminoglycans as Key Molecules in Atherosclerosis: The Role of Versican and Hyaluronan."
Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of death in Western societies and it primarily results from atherosclerosis of large and medium-sized vessels. Atherosclerosis leads to myocardial infarction, when it occurs in the coronary arteries, or stroke, when it occurs in the cerebral arteries. Pathological processes involved in macrovascular disease include the accumulation of lipids which are retained by extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, especially by the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs), such as versican, biglycan and decorin. The sulfation pattern of CS is a key player in protein interactions causing atherosclerosis. Several studies have shown that lipoproteins bind CSPGs via their glycosaminoglycan chains. Galactosaminoglycans, such as CS and DS, bind low density lipoproteins (LDL), affecting the role of these molecules in the arterial wall. In this article, the role of CS and versican in atherosclerosis and hyaluronan in atherogenesis as well as the up to date known mechanisms that provoke this pathological condition are presented and discussed.
Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Biochemistry, University of Patras, 26110, Patras, Greece. N.K.Karamanos@upatras.gr.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current medicinal chemistry
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Vesicular Transport Proteins
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of medium and large muscular ARTERIES with lesions in the innermost layer of the artery (ARTERIAL INTIMA). This disease process of atherogenesis includes the retention of cholesterol-rich LIPOPROTEINS and their binding to PROTEOGLYCANS in the arterial intima, generation of proinflammatory molecules that recruit MACROPHAGES to the subendothelial space, formation of FOAM CELLS, and eventual calcification of the arterial wall. These arterial plaques (atheromas) contain CARBOHYDRATES; BLOOD; and CALCIUM.
A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
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