Single Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria Measurement Substantially Overestimates Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease.
Summary of "Single Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria Measurement Substantially Overestimates Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease."
Background/Aims: Guidelines require repeatedly diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or albuminuria to diagnose chronic kidney disease (CKD), and advise screening only in select populations. Many estimates of CKD prevalence have used single measurements. This longitudinal study assessed eGFR and albuminuria reproducibility, and impact on estimate of CKD prevalence, in factory workers. Methods: A total of 512 white workers in a Belarusian industrial factory were initially tested, identifying 206 with abnormal (eGFR <59 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or albuminuria) or near-abnormal (eGFR up to 1 SD above abnormal) renal function. At 3 months, 142 of the abnormal/near-abnormal cohort were re-tested. Results: Analysis of repeat samples revealed no significant change in eGFR in this population, however 21% individually changed CKD stage. Initial proteinuria was reproducible in only 48% at 3 months. This had a major impact on estimated CKD prevalence: a point prevalence of 8.2% halved with repeat testing. The predictive value of initially abnormal eGFR or albuminuria for repeat abnormality at 3 months was 0.5. Conclusion: Non-targeted screening for CKD is inaccurate and can overestimate prevalence. This study emphasises the importance of confirming abnormal eGFR and proteinuria on at least one further sample 3 months apart before categorising the individual as having CKD. This has wide implications for screening in European general populations.
Oxford Kidney Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nephron. Clinical practice
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental
A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
Renal Insufficiency, Acute
Conditions in which the function of KIDNEYS deteriorates suddenly in a matter of days or even hours. It is characterized by the sudden drop in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE; (GMR). The most severe stage is when the GFR drops below 15 ml per min (ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE).
Kidney Failure, Acute
A severe stage of acute renal insufficiency, characterized by the sudden decrease in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min, sometime to less than 1 to 2 ml per min. It is usually associated with OLIGURIA; EDEMA; and increase in BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and serum CREATININE concentrations.
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