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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the liver. Several studies from ethnically different countries have clarified that the genetic predisposition to type 1 AIH is linked mainly to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class II genes. Recently, molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA typing has revealed that susceptibility to type 1 AIH is primarily associated with the HLA class II DRB1 locus, which encodes a polymorphic β chain of the HLA-DR antigen. However, additional susceptibility genes (either HLA or non-HLA) and/or environmental factors may also contribute to the development of type 1 AIH; in Japanese type 1 AIH patients, although the most influential gene in disease susceptibility is HLA-DRB1*04:05, several other genes have been identified as being involved in AIH pathogenesis or resistance and are the currently the focus of single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.
Department of Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of gastroenterology
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
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