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Microelectrode arrays offer the potential to electrochemically monitor concentrations of molecules at high spatial resolution. However, current systems are limited in the number of sensor sites, signal resolution, and throughput. Here, we present a fully integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) system with an array of 32 × 32 working electrodes to perform electrochemical measurements like amperometry and voltammetry. The array consists of platinum electrodes with a center-to-center distance of 100 μm and electrode diameters of 5 to 50 μm. Currents in the range from 10 μA down to pA can be measured. The current is digitized by sigma-delta converters at a maximum resolution of 13.3 bits. The integrated noise is 220 fA for a bandwidth of 100 Hz, allowing for detection of pA currents. Currents can be continuously acquired at up to 1 kHz bandwidth, or the whole array can be read out rapidly at a frame rate of up to 90 Hz. The results of the electrical characterization meet the requirements of a wide range of electrochemical methods including cyclic voltammograms and amperometric images of high spatial and temporal resolution.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical chemistry
This paper presents a fully integrated transceiver IC as part of a self-sustained, microfluidic-CMOS platform for miniaturized dielectric spectroscopy (DS) from MHz to GHz. Fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm ...
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A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
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A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...