Ultrasound of the larynx, hypopharynx and upper esophagus.
Summary of "Ultrasound of the larynx, hypopharynx and upper esophagus."
Sonography is an integral part of the routine diagnosis of diseases of the head and neck area. Ultrasound plays an important role in particular in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of head and neck cancer. Sonographic imaging of the larynx, hypopharynx and upper esophagus is often difficult due to the anatomical conditions. Therefore, CT and MRI are performed as the imaging techniques of first choice for diseases of these organs. In addition to the well-established transcutaneous ultrasound, endoscopic endoluminal ultrasound has developed as a promising new technique in recent years. Hollow organs can be displayed in high resolution transcutaneously and endoluminally. Thus, the attending otolaryngologist can use endoscopy and ultrasonography for accurate surgical planning. The aim of the present paper is to present the possibilities and limitations of ultrasonography of the larynx, hypopharynx and upper esophagus.
Universitätsklinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A. ö. R., Leipziger Straße 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20963382
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-010-2211-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A DIVERTICULUM at the upper end of the ESOPHAGUS through the cricopharyngeal muscle at the junction of the PHARYNX and the esophagus.
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