Impact of untreated sleep apnea on prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure.
Summary of "Impact of untreated sleep apnea on prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure."
128 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients with a median age of 55 years and median left ventricular ejection fraction of 35.4% were followed up for a median period of 35 months. 23 (18%) had no sleep apnea (CHF-N), 55 (43%) had obstructive sleep apnea (CHF-OSA), and 50 (39%) had central sleep apnea (CHF-CSA). At the end of follow-up, mortality was greater in the CHF-CSA group than in the CHF-N group (18.2 vs 6.7/100 person-years, p=0.017). However, after adjusting age and the New York Heart Association functional class central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, or the severity of sleep apnea are not predictors for survival in CHF. In addition, the percentages of combined events were not significantly different among three groups. Untreated sleep apnea has no independent impact on the prognosis of patients with CHF.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of cardiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19344964
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.03.050
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
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