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To investigate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices following formalin fixation of postmortem multiple sclerosis (MS) cortical gray matter (CGM). Postmortem MS brain is being used to establish pathological correlates of changes detected using MRI, with recent emphasis on CGM. Fixation induces tissue alterations that may confound inference of in vivo observations from MRI/histology correlation studies. MATERIALS AND
T(2)-weighted scans were obtained alongside quantitative T(1), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and macromolecular proton fraction (f(B)) measurements before and after formalin fixation of 15 postmortem brain samples. Type and size of CGM lesions (CGML) was identified on sections immunostained for myelin basic protein.
MRI indices obtained in unfixed MS CGM were similar to values obtained in subjects with MS in vivo. Fixation led to reduction in T(1) (617 msec [standard deviation = 114] vs. 1156 msec ) and MTR (24.1 [3.3] percent units [pu] vs. 29.1 [2.5] pu) and increase in f(B) (5.4 [0.7] pu vs. 3.2 [2.3] pu) (all P < 0.01). The proportion of CGM affected by demyelination did not alter the MRI data.
MRI indices in the CGM are significantly altered following tissue fixation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:1054-1060. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UCL Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuroinflammation, NMR Research Unit, London, United Kingdom.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
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A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
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Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...