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The relation of exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction to functional capacity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is incompletely defined. Thus, we assessed the patterns of onset of physiologically provoked LV outflow gradients and exercise performance in 74 consecutive patients with HC (age 45 ± 16 years; 74% men) without LV outflow obstruction at rest. The subaortic gradients were measured serially using echocardiography in these 74 patients during maximum, symptom-limited, upright bicycle exercise testing. The time course of the provoked gradients and the relation to exercise performance were assessed. Of the 74 patients, 30 (41%) developed a dynamic LV outflow gradient of ≥30 mm Hg (mean 78 ± 37 mm Hg) during upright exercise testing that correlated highly with the gradients measured with the patients supine during the immediate recovery period (R(2) = 0.97). The 16 patients in whom outflow obstruction developed rapidly at low exercise levels (≤5 METs) had a significantly reduced exercise capacity (6.1 ± 1.3 vs 8.0 ± 1.6 METs; p <0.01) compared to the other 14 patients in whom obstruction appeared later at greater exercise levels of >5 METs. The timing of the gradient onset was not predictable from the baseline clinical and echocardiographic features, peak exercise LV outflow tract gradient, or symptoms. In conclusion, in patients with HC without outflow obstruction at rest, the earlier onset of LV outflow tract gradients during physiologic exercise was associated with impaired exercise performance. These findings have provided insights into the determinants of functional impairment in HC and support the potential value of exercise echocardiography in the clinical assessment of patients with HC.
CMSR-Veneto Medica, Altavilla Vicentina (VI), Italy; Regional Referral Center for Myocardial Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliera Careggi, Florence, Italy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The American journal of cardiology
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Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.
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A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
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