Combination of loop diuretics with thiazide-type diuretics in heart failure.
Summary of "Combination of loop diuretics with thiazide-type diuretics in heart failure."
Volume overload is an important clinical target in heart failure management, typically addressed using loop diuretics. An important and challenging subset of heart failure patients exhibit fluid overload despite significant doses of loop diuretics. One approach to overcome loop diuretic resistance is the addition of a thiazide-type diuretic to produce diuretic synergy via "sequential nephron blockade," first described more than 40 years ago. Although potentially able to induce diuresis in patients otherwise resistant to high doses of loop diuretics, this strategy has not been subjected to large-scale clinical trials to establish safety and clinical efficacy. We summarize the existing literature evaluating the combination of loop and thiazide diuretics in patients with heart failure in order to describe the possible benefits and hazards associated with this therapy. Combination diuretic therapy using any of several thiazide-type diuretics can more than double daily urine sodium excretion to induce weight loss and edema resolution, at the risk of inducing severe hypokalemia in addition to hyponatremia, hypotension, and worsening renal function. We provide considerations about prudent use of this therapy and review potential misconceptions about this long-used diuretic approach. Finally, we seek to highlight the need for pragmatic clinical trials for this commonly used therapy.
Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21029871
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.06.034
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Heterocyclic compounds with SULFUR and NITROGEN in the ring. This term commonly refers to the BENZOTHIADIAZINES that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
The currently available diuretics increase the urinary excretion of sodium chloride by selective inhibition of specific sodium transporters in the loop of Henle and distal nephron. In recent years, th...
Use of Diuretics in Patients with Hypertension Review Article, N Engl J Med 2009;361:2153-2164. In Table 3 (page 2161), under "Possible Solution," the parenthetical information in the entry beginning,...
The precise relationship of Hyperuricemia found in hypertensive patients is still obscure; this study is a urinary uric acid lowering intervention with Losartan in hypertensive patients induced by Thi...
In the treatment of hypertension, both the thiazide diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and bendroflumethiazide and the "thiazide-like" diuretics chlorthalidone and indapamide are used. Guidelines refer to...
Diuretics are agents commonly used in diseases characterized by excess extracellular fluid, including chronic kidney disease, the nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and heart failure. Multiple diuretic cla...
The purpose of DIME is to evaluate the safety (i.e. new onset of diabetes and other metabolic adverse events), efficacy and cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment with low dose d...
The purpose of the research is to determine if patients have fewer Heart Failure (HF) events after receiving Aquapheresis (AQ) therapy compared to intravenous (IV) diuretics up to 90 days...
The purpose of this study is to compare therapeutic effects of furosemide, a short-acting loop diuretic, and azosemide, a long-acting one, in patients with heart failure, and to test our h...
To examine the effects of the addition of clonidine to diuretics on the mobilization of ascites at short-term (diuretic response and requirement of diuretics) and long-term (readmissions f...
A number of major clinical trials have demonstrated the clinical benefits of lowering blood pressure and have indicated that a majority of patients with hypertension will require more than...