Targeting Hyponatremia and Hemodynamics in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Is There a Role for Vasopressin Antagonists?
Summary of "Targeting Hyponatremia and Hemodynamics in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Is There a Role for Vasopressin Antagonists?"
Current treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not reduced the significant morbidity or mortality associated with this disease, and has promoted drug development aimed at neurohormonal targets. Hypervolemic hyponatremia, which is linked to the nonosmotic release of arginine vasopressin, is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). Vasopressin acts on V(2) and V(1a) receptors to cause water retention and vasoconstriction, respectively. Clinical trials have demonstrated that vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRAs) are effective in treating hypervolemic hyponatremia in ADHF without a negative impact on renal function. The small hemodynamic benefit seen with VRA use appeared to result from V(2)-receptor antagonist-induced increase in urine output rather than from a vasodilatory drug effect. VRA use in ADHF trials was associated with minimal symptomatic improvement and no impact on morbidity or mortality. At present, clinical trial evidence does not support the routine use of VRAs in ADHF. Given the favorable renal profile of VRAs, studies on the possible benefit of VRAs in ADHF patients with renal insufficiency and diuretic resistance appear warranted.
Tufts University School of Medicine, Baystate Medical Center, S-4665, Cardiology, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, MA, 01199, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current heart failure reports
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21046492
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11897-010-0035-3
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Myelinolysis, Central Pontine
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
Heart Failure, Diastolic
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.
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