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Visible strabismus has been shown to have adverse psychosocial consequences. It remains controversial if esotropia or exotropia is perceived more negatively. The aim of this study was to determine if esotropia or exotropia and the eye (side) in which strabismus is present are perceived differently. We also asked our adult participants: (1) if they thought visible strabismus should be corrected by surgery, (2) if they thought that strabismus surgery should only be to improve the cosmesis, and (3) if they thought that the surgery should be paid for by health insurance.
One hundred adults and 61 children rated four photographs of a digitally altered picture of a boy and four of a girl, showing a large-angle esotropia or exotropia either in the left or on the right eye. The adults were additionally asked if a squint should be operated, if they considered strabismus surgery to be a cosmetic procedure, if in their opinion strabismus surgery should be covered by compulsory health insurance, and if children with strabismus are disadvantaged. Comparisons were performed using ANOVA and regression analysis.
Adults perceived a squinting right eye as more disturbing than a squinting left eye p < 0.001). The direction of strabismus, the age, gender, and the number of persons with a squint among family and friends of the respondents did not influence the perception of strabismus by adults (p > 0.1 for each). Children also found that a squinting right eye is more disturbing (p < 0.001) than a left one. Additionally, children ranked esotropia worse than exotropia (p < 0.001). Neither age nor gender had an impact on the perception of strabismus by children. Of the adults, 94% would recommend surgery for all forms of strabismus, 18% thought that surgery is only cosmetic, and 94% found that health insurance should cover strabismus surgery for everybody. Problems of squinting children named by the adults included: being made fun of by other children (53%), problems with eyesight (39%), people looking strangely at them (21%), less acceptance by peers (17%), less self confidence (6%), problems judging distances (4%), and that they are perceived as less intelligent (3%).
Adults and children rated a squinting right eye as worse compared to a left one. Children perceived esotropia as more disturbing than exotropia. Neither age, nor gender, nor the fact that the respondents have friends or family members with a squint, had an impact on this ranking. Almost all adults would correct all forms of strabismus, and think that surgery should be covered by compulsory health insurance.
Research Institute for Labour Economics and Labour Law, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
This article was published in the following journal.
To investigate the anterior chamber structure in children and adults with a similar axial length (AL).
Maternal perception of child's nutritional status has a potential impact on the identification, prevention, and treatment of childhood overweight. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the preva...
Fixational eye movements are of particular interest for three reasons. They are critical for preventing visual fading and enhancing visual perception; their disconjugacy allows scanning in three dimen...
Accurate measurement of strabismus is vital to proper diagnosis and treatment. Objective and subjective measurement techniques can be used. The authors hypothesized that subjective measurement techniq...
Cross-cultural comparisons provide critical insight into variation in reasoning about intelligence. In two studies, the authors used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the r...
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of 5 % vs. 1.25 % povidone-iodine (PI) as preoperative antiseptic prior to strabismus surgery in children as a prophylaxis of endophtha...
The strabismus impacts binocular visual acuity and stereoscopy. Thus, driving capacities of patients with strabismus may be reduced. The goal of this work is to study the possible ameliora...
The effect of airway management on vomiting after strabismus surgery is unknown. The purpose of this study is to find out whether the use of different airway devices, such as LMA, which is...
The validation of a French questionnaire is very important to assess rigorously and objectively the impact of the treatments of strabismus and amblyopia on children quality of life.
Every year over 1,000 children undergo eye muscle surgery provided by physicians at this institution. For many of these children this is not and will not be the only surgical procedure for...
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Injury to the nervous system secondary to exposure to lead compounds. Two distinct clinical patterns occur in children (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, CHILDHOOD) and adults (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, ADULT). In children, lead poisoning typically produces an encephalopathy. In adults, exposure to toxic levels of lead is associated with a peripheral neuropathy.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...