Use of hypertonic saline injection in trauma.
Summary of "Use of hypertonic saline injection in trauma."
Purpose The use of hypertonic saline injection in trauma patients is discussed. Summary Patients with hemorrhage, burns, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) may develop hypovolemic shock and require resuscitation. Compared with conventional isotonic crystalloids, hypertonic saline has several advantages, including hemodynamic, immune-modulating, and antiinflammatory effects, for use in trauma patients for resuscitation. In addition, hypertonic saline is also used in patients with TBI to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP). Overall, studies have not shown a difference in mortality or other clinically important outcomes with the use of hypertonic saline for resuscitation in trauma patients; however, most of these studies were not adequately powered to show significant differences. A recent Cochrane review concluded that there is no evidence that hypertonic crystalloids are better than isotonic or near-isotonic crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in trauma patients. Two recent trials that were adequately powered to investigate a mortality endpoint were halted for futility. A few small randomized controlled studies found that hypertonic saline was more effective than mannitol as a hyperosmolar agent for ICP reduction. Recent guidelines from the American Burn Association have suggested that hypertonic saline may be used for burn shock resuscitation by experienced providers with close monitoring to avoid excessive hypernatremia. One of the main concerns with the use of hypertonic saline is its potential to cause central pontine myelinolysis due to a rapid increase in serum sodium levels. Conclusion There is no evidence that hypertonic saline provides any additional benefit over isotonic crystalloid solutions for trauma resuscitation. Hypertonic saline may be more effective than mannitol at reducing ICP in patients with TBI.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE distinguished from other genera in the family by the presence of specific derivatives of TGD-2 polar lipids. Haloarcula are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes, marine salterns, and saline soils.
A family of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Members of the family have been isolated from temperate and Antarctic saline lakes, solar salt facilities, saline soils, and marine environments.
A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
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