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Background: The recent literature frequently represents schizophrenia as a deteriorating neurocognitive process similar to organic degenerative dementia. Methods: This study addresses the following questions: (1) Did the classic authors equate degenerative dementia with schizophrenia? (2) Is there empirical evidence pointing to a close similarity between schizophrenia and organic dementia? (3) Does empirical evidence support the view that intellectual impairment and/or more specific neuropsychological dysfunctions are core features of schizophrenia? The classic authors agreed that the intellectual dysfunctions were most likely a consequence rather than a primary, causal factor in the manifestation of schizophrenia despite their consensus on the assumption of its neurobiological origins. Rather, they considered impairments of intelligence and neurocognition as an expression of pseudodementia, i.e. a dementia-like clinical picture caused by a weakening of motivation. Results: The empirical data from the draft, high-risk birth cohort and clinical samples show a low IQ and a variety of neurocognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. These findings are far from universal since substantial proportions of patients do not show deficits. In addition, the empirical morphological and neuropathological evidence does not support any close analogy of schizophrenia with neurodegenerative dementia. Moreover, neurocognitive dysfunctions cannot be considered a core feature of schizophrenia if core is understood as 'essential', i.e. constitutive of a diagnosis, or as 'generative', i.e. symptom producing. In the phenomenological psychopathological tradition, schizophrenia is seen as a progressive condition marked by autism, which is a profound alteration in the structures (frameworks) of subjectivity (consciousness), manifest in self-relation (self-disorders) and in the relation to the world (lack of natural evidence) and to others (eccentricity, solipsism and isolation). Conclusion: It is suggested that the neurodevelopmental model should integrate interactions between emerging psychological structures and genetic and environmental factors.
University Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatric Center Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
This article was published in the following journal.
Depression is a presenting symptom of common psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Depression can also be the presenting symptom of several neur...
Studies suggest that the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism is associated with the incidence of schizophrenia and neurocognitive functioning. These associations appear to be however somewhat mixed. W...
While the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder have been well described in schizophrenia, comorbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been les...
While schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been assumed to share phenotypic and genotypic features, there is also evidence for overlapping brain structural correlates, although it is unclear whethe...
Alterations in immune response may be an important component in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We examined the associations of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) with the onset of schizop...
Between 40% and 60% bipolar patients experience neurocognitive impairment not only during acute mood episodes but also during remission periods. These rates are quite similar to those rep...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of neurocognitive enhancement on cognitive abilities and related social and adaptive behaviours in individuals diagnosed with major depr...
This project is based on a three-year program that aims to improve the knowledge of the socioeconomic consequences of dementia in Norway. By including patients with and without dementia in...
The principal aim of the project is to conduct an off-label adjunctive clinical trial evaluating varenicline as a treatment for core neurobiological and clinical deficits in schizophrenia,...
This is a multi-site, randomized fixed-flexible dose long-term study of asenapine in participants with schizophrenia. The first six weeks of the study will be double-blind and the remainde...
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.
Rare congenital disorder with multiple anomalies including: characteristic dysmorphic craniofacial features, musculoskeletal abnormalities, neurocognitive delay, and high prevalence of cancer. Germline mutations in H-Ras protein can cause Costello syndrome. Costello syndrome shows early phenotypic overlap with other disorders that involve MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM (e.g., NOONAN SYNDROME and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome).
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Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
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Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...