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Background: The recent literature frequently represents schizophrenia as a deteriorating neurocognitive process similar to organic degenerative dementia. Methods: This study addresses the following questions: (1) Did the classic authors equate degenerative dementia with schizophrenia? (2) Is there empirical evidence pointing to a close similarity between schizophrenia and organic dementia? (3) Does empirical evidence support the view that intellectual impairment and/or more specific neuropsychological dysfunctions are core features of schizophrenia? The classic authors agreed that the intellectual dysfunctions were most likely a consequence rather than a primary, causal factor in the manifestation of schizophrenia despite their consensus on the assumption of its neurobiological origins. Rather, they considered impairments of intelligence and neurocognition as an expression of pseudodementia, i.e. a dementia-like clinical picture caused by a weakening of motivation. Results: The empirical data from the draft, high-risk birth cohort and clinical samples show a low IQ and a variety of neurocognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. These findings are far from universal since substantial proportions of patients do not show deficits. In addition, the empirical morphological and neuropathological evidence does not support any close analogy of schizophrenia with neurodegenerative dementia. Moreover, neurocognitive dysfunctions cannot be considered a core feature of schizophrenia if core is understood as 'essential', i.e. constitutive of a diagnosis, or as 'generative', i.e. symptom producing. In the phenomenological psychopathological tradition, schizophrenia is seen as a progressive condition marked by autism, which is a profound alteration in the structures (frameworks) of subjectivity (consciousness), manifest in self-relation (self-disorders) and in the relation to the world (lack of natural evidence) and to others (eccentricity, solipsism and isolation). Conclusion: It is suggested that the neurodevelopmental model should integrate interactions between emerging psychological structures and genetic and environmental factors.
University Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatric Center Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
This article was published in the following journal.
Both neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia are highly heritable. Genetic overlap between neurocognitive deficits and schizophrenia has been observed in both the general population and in clinical ...
Comparison of neurocognitive function in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia in later life: A cross-sectional study of euthymic or remitted, non-demented patients using the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS-J).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with cognitive dysfunction both in adulthood and in later life. In this study, we directly compared neuroc...
It has been suggested that patients with bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms (BD-P) have larger neurocognitive impairment than patients with bipolar disorder without a history of psychotic sympto...
Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs), presumably involving alterations in "core" or "minimal self," have been studied as manifest in schizophrenia and its spectrum, in contrast with mood disorder and per...
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disord...
Between 40% and 60% bipolar patients experience neurocognitive impairment not only during acute mood episodes but also during remission periods. These rates are quite similar to those rep...
The prevalence of people suffering from gambling disorder is relatively high, and the impact on this disorder the individual and those around him is considerable. The etiopathogenic model ...
This is a study to assess the efficacy augmenting cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) with a pharmacological agent for individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Impaired cog...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of neurocognitive enhancement on cognitive abilities and related social and adaptive behaviours in individuals diagnosed with major depr...
The principal aim of the project is to conduct an off-label adjunctive clinical trial evaluating varenicline as a treatment for core neurobiological and clinical deficits in schizophrenia,...
Diagnoses of DEMENTIA and AMNESTIC DISORDER are subsumed here. (DSM-5)
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A dibenzothiazepine and ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT that targets the SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR; HISTAMINE H1 RECEPTOR, adrenergic alpha1 and alpha2 receptors, as well as the DOPAMINE D1 RECEPTOR and DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR. It is used in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA; BIPOLAR DISORDER and DEPRESSIVE DISORDER.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...