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Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors are subject to considerable controversies. This group includes encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) and encapsulated (so-called minimally invasive) follicular carcinoma (EFC). FVPTC usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/nonencapsulated infiltrative neoplasm. The encapsulated form rarely metastasizes to lymph node, whereas infiltrative tumors often harbor nodal metastases. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations). Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF > RAS mutations). Noninvasive encapsulated FVPTC are extremely indolent even if treated with lobectomy without radioactive iodine therapy. Although most EFC are thought to have an excellent outcome, there are cases of EFC that recur and metastasize. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, have a significant rate of distant recurrence. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile and a clinical behavior very similar to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma class of tumor. If noninvasive, encapsulated FVPTC should be treated in a very conservative fashion. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, should not be termed minimally invasive in order to prevent undertreatment of the patient.
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Endocrine pathology
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A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
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Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
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The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...
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