Encapsulated Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Thyroid Tumors.
Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors are subject to considerable controversies. This group includes encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) and encapsulated (so-called minimally invasive) follicular carcinoma (EFC). FVPTC usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/nonencapsulated infiltrative neoplasm. The encapsulated form rarely metastasizes to lymph node, whereas infiltrative tumors often harbor nodal metastases. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations). Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF > RAS mutations). Noninvasive encapsulated FVPTC are extremely indolent even if treated with lobectomy without radioactive iodine therapy. Although most EFC are thought to have an excellent outcome, there are cases of EFC that recur and metastasize. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, have a significant rate of distant recurrence. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile and a clinical behavior very similar to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma class of tumor. If noninvasive, encapsulated FVPTC should be treated in a very conservative fashion. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, should not be termed minimally invasive in order to prevent undertreatment of the patient.
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Endocrine pathology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21088998
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-010-9141-8
Oncocytic cell tumors are characterized by the accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in their cells, suggesting a role for abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis in oncocytic cell transform...
Thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential (TT-UMP) include follicular and well-differentiated tumors of UMP (FT-UMP/WDT-UMP), as it refers to the presence of questionable capsular/vascular invas...
Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroi...
The role of EGF and TGF-β1 in thyroid cancer is still not clearly defined. TGF-β1 inhibited the cellular growth and migration of follicular (FTC-133) and papillary (B-CPAP) thyroid carcinoma cell li...
Follicular thyroid hyperplasia (FTH) refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland due to cellular hyperplasia. It is frequently encountered in clinical practice in nontoxic uninodular or multinodular go...
This is multicenter, open-label, randomized, active-controled, phase IV study of local direct intra-tumor injection of rAd-p53 monotherapy, with concurrent radioactive iodine , or combinat...
RATIONALE: Gathering information about patients with thyroid cancer or thyroid nodules may help the study of thyroid cancer in the future. PURPOSE: This study is gathering information and...
Participants in this study will be patients diagnosed with or suspected to have a thyroid nodule or thyroid cancer. The main purpose of this study is to further understand the methods for...
The standard surgical treatment for highly differentiated papillary thyroid cancer > 10 mm according to recent national and international guidelines, is total thyroidectomy and central lym...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate how common gene mutations are in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.