Injuries and dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon.
Summary of "Injuries and dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon."
The function of the posterior tibial (PT) tendon is to stabilize the hindfoot against valgus and eversion forces. It functions as the primary invertor of the foot and assists the Achilles tendon in plantar flexion. The PT tendon is a stance phase muscle, firing from heel strike to shortly after heel lift-off. It decelerates subtalar joint pronation after heel contact. It functions as a powerful subtalar joint supinator and as a support of the medial longitudinal arch. The action of the tendon travels to the transverse tarsal joints, locking them and allowing the gastrocnemius to support heel rise. Acute injuries of the PT tendon are rare and mostly affect the active middle-aged patient or they are the result of complex injuries to the ankle joint complex. Dysfunction of the PT tendon following degeneration and rupture, in contrast, has shown an increasing incidence in recent years. To which extent changed lifestyle, advancing age, comorbidities, and obesity play a role has not yet been clarified in detail.Dysfunction of the PT tendon results in progressive destabilization of the hind- and midfoot. Clinically, the ongoing deformation of the foot can be classified into four stages: in stage 1, the deformity is distinct and fully correctable; in stage II, the deformity is obvious, but still correctable; in stage III, the deformity has become stiff; and in stage IV, the ankle joint is also involved in the deformity. Treatment modalities depend on stage: while conservative measures may work in stage I, surgical treatment is mandatory for the later stages. Reconstructive surgery is advised in stage II, whereas in stage III and IV correcting and stabilizing arthrodeses are advised. A promising treatment option for stage IV may be adding an ankle prosthesis to a triple arthrodesis, as long as the remaining competence of the deltoid ligament is sufficient. An appropriate treatment is mandatory to avoid further destabilization and deformation of the foot. Failures of treatment result mostly from underestimation of the problem or insufficient treatment of existing instability and deformity.
Klinik für Orthopädie und Traumatologie des Bewegungsapparates, Orthopädische Klinik Kantonsspital, Rheinstraße 26, CH-4410, Liestal, Schweiz, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Orthopade
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21088955
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00132-010-1692-3
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.
Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32)
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
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