Failure and relapse after treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in classic Whipple's disease.
Summary of "Failure and relapse after treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in classic Whipple's disease."
Objectives Classic Whipple's disease is a chronic disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. A recent study reported that intravenous treatment with ceftriaxone or meropenem followed by a 1 year treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole cured all patients. However, we have previously reported that T. whipplei is poorly susceptible to beta-lactams and resistant to trimethoprim. Herein, we want to evaluate these antibiotic regimens. Patients and methods Since the organism was first cultured in Unité des Rickettsies, Marseille (France), we received samples for the diagnosis of T. whipplei infections. Among the 37 patients referred to us for management, 24 patients presented classic Whipple's disease. Among them, 14 patients treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were followed up for >3 years. Results None of the 14 patients was cured. One patient presented with an adverse side effect necessitating treatment cessation. Two patients developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. One patient died 4 weeks after initiation of the treatment. Five patients developed clinical resistance; four of these having mutations on the target gene of sulfamethoxazole (folP). Five patients developed a relapse after cessation of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole after an average of 30 months. The high relapse rate may be linked to our recruitment. However, discrepancies with other centres could be due to the heterogeneity of diagnosis and cure criteria, different follow-up methods or infections due to T. whipplei strains with better susceptibility to antibiotics. Conclusions We confirmed, as predicted from prior testing of T. whipplei susceptibility, that trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is not optimal for classic Whipple's disease. In addition, 1 year treatment may be followed by relapses.
Université de la Méditerranée, Unité des Rickettsies, URMITE CNRS-IRD UMR 6236, Faculté de Médecine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. The interference with folic acid metabolism may cause a depression of hematopoiesis. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (OVARIAN FAILURE, PREMATURE); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
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