Size and location of the kidneys during the fetal period.
Summary of "Size and location of the kidneys during the fetal period."
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric development and location of the kidneys during the fetal period.
Three hundred and forty-four fetal kidneys, obtained from 172 human fetuses and aged between 9 and 40 weeks, were used in this study. Fetuses were divided into four groups according to the gestational weeks: first trimester, second trimester, third trimester, and full-term gestation. First, the anterior abdominal wall was dissected. Topographic localization of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity was then assessed. The distance between the inferior pole of the kidney and iliac crest was measured. The vertebral levels of the superior and the inferior poles and relations to ribs of the kidneys were determined. The distances between hilum of the kidneys and inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta, and midline of the vertebral column were determined. The dimensions (width, length, and thickness), weight, and volume of kidneys were measured.
The results showed that the distance between the inferior poles of the kidneys and the iliac crest increases with gestational age. The vertebral levels of the superior and inferior poles of the kidneys increased during the fetal period. The level of the left kidney was higher than the level of the right kidney in the fetal period. The posterior surface relations to the ribs showed certain ascendance during gestation, corresponding to vertebral levels. However, fetal kidneys do not reach the same level as adults at full term. The kidneys move farther apart from the midline of the body during the fetal period. The dimensions, weight, and volume of the kidneys increased with gestational age during the fetal period. The ratio between kidney weights and fetal body weights were determined, and we observed that the ratio decreased during the fetal period. There were no sex or laterality differences in any parameter.
The morphometric parameters and the location of the fetal kidneys were determined by the present study. This will also contribute to imaging of fetal kidneys and detection of kidney abnormalities in the intrauterine period. We hope that the present results can provide some useful findings for radiological (ultrasound and MR) studies.
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, 32260, Turkey, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21110022
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-010-0749-7
This article deals with the numerical analysis to ascertain the presence of a tumor and to estimate its size and location in a tissue. Heat transfer in the tissue is modeled using the Pennes bioheat t...
Pregnant Wistar rats fed control and Zn-deficient diets received daily oral doses of 0, 100, and 300 mg/kg sodium valproate from d 16 to 20 of gestation. Only the highest valproate doses induced a sma...
Manual fetal manipulation has been suggested to improve the efficiency of antepartum fetal heart rate testing.
Ethylmercuric chloride (EtHg), at the dose of 2.5 mg Hg/kg, was administered by gavage every other day to pregnant rats from d 6 to 20 of gestation. On the 21st day of gestation, females were sacrific...
Abstract Gemcitabine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were produced by double emulsification technique using stearic acid as lipid, soy lecithin as surfactant and sodium taurocholate as cosurfa...
Before radiation treatment is given to treat chordomas, CT and MRI scans are used to create a three dimensional picture of the tumor using x-rays. The CT and MRI scans are used to determi...
To enable an investigation of fetal movements, the researchers have developed a multichannel ultrasound pulsed Doppler called ACTIFOETUS. This new fetal monitor includes three transducers...
Abnormal enlargement of the clitoris in fetal life may be a sign for different pathologies. To the investigators knowledge there is no published nomogram of the clitoris size through gesta...
Background: - Normal fetal growth is a critical component of a healthy pregnancy and the long-term health of the offspring. Pivotal to understanding the dynamics of human fetal gr...
Validate that circulating cell free fetal nucleic acid can be used to identify a direct marker for fetal aneuploidy, particularly fetal Down Syndrome (DS), that is better than surrogate ma...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
A complication of pregnancy in which the UMBILICAL CORD wraps around the fetal neck once or multiple times. In some cases, cord entanglement around fetal neck may not affect pregnancy outcome significantly. In others, the nuchal cord may lead to restricted fetal blood flow, oxygen transport, fetal development, fetal movement, and complicated delivery at birth.
Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENE THERAPY.