Effect of ambient temperature on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance exercise.
Summary of "Effect of ambient temperature on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance exercise."
It is well established that caffeine ingestion during exercise enhances endurance performance. Conversely, the physiological and psychological strain that accompanies increased ambient temperature decreases endurance performance. Little is known about the interaction between environmental temperature and the effects of caffeine on performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ambient temperature (12 and 33°C) on caffeine ergogenicity during endurance cycling exercise. Eleven male cyclists (mean ± SD; age, 25 ± 6 years; [Formula: see text] 58.7 ± 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed four exercise trials in a randomized, double blind experimental design. After cycling continuously for 90 min (average 65 ± 7% [Formula: see text]) in either a warm (33 ± 1°C, 41 ± 5%rh) or cool (12 ± 1°C, 60 ± 7%rh) environment, subjects completed a 15-min performance trial (PT; based on total work accumulated). Subjects ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of encapsulated caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) 60 min prior to and after 45 min of exercise. Throughout exercise, subjects ingested water so that at the end of exercise, independent of ambient temperature, their body mass was reduced 0.55 ± 0.67%. Two-way (temperature × treatment) repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted with alpha set at 0.05. Total work (kJ) during the PT was greater in 12°C than 33°C [P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.804, confidence interval (CI): 30.51-62.30]. When pooled, CAF increased performance versus PLA independent of temperature (P = 0.006, η(2) = 0.542
3.60-16.86). However, performance differences with CAF were not dependent on ambient temperature (i.e., non-significant interaction; P = 0.662). CAF versus PLA in 12 and 33°C resulted in few differences in other physiological variables. However, during exercise, rectal temperature (T (re)) increased in the warm environment (peak T (re); 33°C, 39.40 ± 0.45; 12°C, 38.79 ± 0.42°C; P < 0.05) but was not different in CAF versus PLA (P > 0.05). Increased ambient temperature had a detrimental effect on cycling performance in both the CAF and PLA conditions. CAF improved performance independent of environmental temperature. These findings suggest that caffeine at the dosage utilized (6 mg/kg body mass) is a, legal drug that provides an ergogenic benefit in 12 and 33°C.
Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA, MatthewGanio@texashealth.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of applied physiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21120518
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1734-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
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