Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis.
Summary of "Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis."
Hypokalemia occurs in up to 60% of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal disease. It can be associated with poor clinical outcomes, including malnutrition and death. New evidence points to a link between hypokalemia and the risk of peritonitis. The serum Na(+) concentration is determined by the ratio of exchangeable Na(+) and K(+) to total body water. Hyponatremia may be caused by excessive thirst, a particular problem in patients on PD. Consistent with the relationship among the serum sodium concentration, total body cation content, and total body water, hyponatremia may also be caused by total body potassium depletion. Ultra-low sodium dialysis fluid may prove to have an important role in management of fluid overload and hypertension in patients on PD. Surprisingly, it is not associated with significant hyponatremia, for reasons that remain to be elucidated.
Division of Nephrology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Seminars in dialysis
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21121953
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-139X.2010.00789.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
Disorder characterized by a wide range of structural changes in PERITONEUM, resulting from fibrogenic or inflammatory processes. Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication in patients receiving PERITONEAL DIALYSIS and contributes to its gradual decrease in efficiency.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. Peritoneal stomata constitute the principal pathways for the drainage of intraperitoneal contents from the PERITONEAL CAVITY to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
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