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Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactivity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interaction with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversible lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Particle and fibre toxicology
To examine the effect of the number of events per variable (EPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression coefficients, standard errors, empirical coverage rates of estimated confidence intervals and e...
There have been several reported studies on the distribution and/or toxicity of nanosilica particles. However, the influence of these particles on blood vessels through which they are distributed is p...
In this paper, we discuss causal inference on the efficacy of a treatment or medication on a time-to-event outcome with competing risks. Although the treatment group can be randomized, there can be co...
Cryptococcus is a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection, with a variable clinical presentation. Hence, diagnosis and therapeutic management of this entity is challenging.
A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (eg. a person), and finding all its occurences in the video...
The aim of this multicenter, randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the weaning time from mechanical ventilation comparing non-variable PSV, variable PSV, and Smart CareTM. This study...
The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the long-term effects and cost-effectiveness of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) on the mortality and morbidity of patients with stable heart failu...
The goal of the HOME Study is to quantify the impact of low-level fetal and early childhood exposures to environmental toxicants (lead, mercury, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...
OBJECTIVES: I. Determine whether polyethylene-glycol-conjugated interleukin 2 (PEG-IL-2) can reduce the number of infections in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. II. Dete...
ADDERALL XR (Mixed Salts of a Single-Entity Amphetamine) and STRATTERA ( Atomoxetine Hydrochloride) Compared to Placebo on Simulated Driving Safety and Performance and Cognitive Functioning in Adults With ADHD
Evaluate the efficacy of treatment with ADDERALL XR and STRATTERA compared to placebo on simulated driving safety and performance of young adults with ADHD as measured by Driving Safety Sc...
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
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Pulmonary relating to or associated with the lungs eg Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD, Cystic Fibrosis, Influenza, Lung Cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, Sleep Disorders etc Follow and track Lung Cancer News ...