The bladder-brain connection: putative role of corticotropin-releasing factor.
Summary of "The bladder-brain connection: putative role of corticotropin-releasing factor."
The coordination of pelvic visceral activity with appropriate elimination behaviors is a complex task that requires reciprocal communication between the brain and pelvic organs. Barrington's nucleus, located in the pons, is central to a circuit involved in this function. Barrington's nucleus neurons project to both pelvic visceral motorneurons and cerebral norepinephrine neurons that modulate behavior. This circuit coordinates the descending limb of the micturition reflex with a central limb that initiates arousal and shifts the focus of attention to facilitate elimination behavior. The same circuitry that links the bladder and brain enables pathological processes in one target of the circuit to be expressed in the other. Urological disorders can, therefore, have cognitive and behavioral consequences by affecting components of this circuit; and in the opposing direction, psychosocial stressors can produce voiding dysfunctions and bladder pathology. The stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, which is prominent in Barrington's nucleus neurons, is a potential mediator of these effects.
Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Urology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21135878
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2010.203
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Receptors, Corticotropin-releasing Hormone
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
Local antibacterial that probably acts by releasing formaldehyde in aqueous solutions. It is used for irrigation of infected body cavities - bladder, peritoneum, etc. and as a spray for burns.
A HERNIA-like condition in which the weakened pelvic muscles cause the URINARY BLADDER to drop from its normal position. Fallen urinary bladder is more common in females with the bladder dropping into the VAGINA and less common in males with the bladder dropping into the SCROTUM.
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