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Voluntary movement is a fundamental way in which animals respond to, and interact with, their environment. In mammals, the main CNS pathway controlling voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which encompasses connections between the cerebral motor cortex and the spinal cord. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders that lead to a length-dependent, distal axonopathy of fibres of the corticospinal tract, causing lower limb spasticity and weakness. Recent work aimed at elucidating the molecular cell biology underlying the HSPs has revealed the importance of basic cellular processes - especially membrane trafficking and organelle morphogenesis and distribution - in axonal maintenance and degeneration.
Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nature reviews. Neuroscience
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) represents a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases, with a worldwide estimated prevalence of 1.3/100,000 . The "pure" form...
Spastic gait is a key feature in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis, but the gait characterization and the relationship between the gait impairment and clinical characteristics have not been...
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders with over 50 known causative genes. We identified a recurrent mutation in KCNA2 (c.881G>A, p.R294H), encoding th...
SPG11 belongs to the autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) and presents during childhood or puberty with a complex clinical phenotype encompassing learning difficulties, ataxia, per...
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs; SPG1-76 plus others) are length-dependent disorders affecting long corticospinal axons, and the most common autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in ge...
Hereditary spastic paraplegias constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases with the common predominant feature of spasticity of the lower limbs. The clinical picture is composed of diffic...
OBJECTIVES: I. Assess the efficacy and safety of selective dorsal rhizotomy and physiotherapy compared with physiotherapy alone in improving gross motor function and reducing spasticity ...
The purpose of this study is to learn about rates of patient-reported disease progression in patients with motor neuron diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atroph...
Cerebellar ataxias (CA) and spastic paraplegias (SP) are genetically and clinically very heterogeneous. More than 40 loci are already known but the number of phenotypes is even greater sug...
The purpose of this study is to characterize the cortical connectivity changes in the brain of spastic diplegic children after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy.
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progressive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Spinal Cord Disorders
The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of the back which carry signals back and forth between the body and brain. It is protected by vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up the spine. An accident that damages the verte...