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The presence in cancer tissue of Ag-specific, activated tumor infiltrating CD8(+) T cells proves that tumors express Ags capable of eliciting immune response. Therefore, in general, tumor escape from immune-mediated clearance is not attributable to immunological ignorance. However, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are defective in effector phase function, demonstrating tumor-induced immune suppression that likely underlies tumor escape. Since exocytosis of lytic granules is dependent upon TCR-mediated signal transduction, it is a reasonable contention that tumors may induce defective signal transduction in tumor infiltrating T cells. In this review, we consider the biochemical basis for antitumor T cell dysfunction, focusing on the role of inhibitory signaling receptors in restricting TCR-mediated signaling in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Department of Cell Biology.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Development of a tumor is a very complex process, and invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors are hallmarks and are difficult problems to overcome. The tumor microenvironment plays an important ro...
Both mucin 1 (MUC1) and galectin-3 are known to be overexpressed in various malignant tumors and associated with a poor prognosis. It has been extensively reported that MUC1 is involved in potentiatio...
The aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a defining pathology of the development and progression of prostate cancers. Transcriptional cofactors that bind...
Whether or not a tumor expresses peculiar antigens that differentiate it from normal cells was intensively investigated in the 1950s. A conclusive answer was provided in 1960 when George Klein showed ...
Hepatoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to conventional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a better way for hepatoma therapy. In this research, (10)B-enriched boric...
This study investigates the effects of Lithium treatment on signal transduction pathways, gene expression and brain neurochemistry and structure in patients with Bipolar disorder. It is hy...
This is a Phase 1 clinical trial examining the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of escalating doses of the proteasome inhibitor NPI-0052 in patients with refractory solid tumo...
There is strong scientific rationale for exploring the role of sorafenib with capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) in AGC. XP is a new standard of care in AGC and sorafenib is a novel signal tr...
To determine safety profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist, ZD1839 in combination with cisplatin and radiation therapy in patients with local-regional recurrent ...
The purposes of this study are the following: 1. To further characterize and quantify both CSF-1 and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) expression from additional tumor ...
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa
A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.
A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Head and neck cancers
Cancer can occur in any of the tissues or organs in the head and neck. There are over 30 different places that cancer can develop in the head and neck area. Mouth cancers (oral cancers) - Mouth cancer can develop on the lip, the tongue, the floor...