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Semen analysis plays a key role in the diagnostics of male infertility. Semen analysis has to be performed according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The updated version of the WHO manual was completed at the end of 2009 and published in 2010. Standard procedures in semen analysis include evaluation of sperm concentration, motility, morphology and vitality. In this new version particular attention has been paid to internal and external quality control, helping to identify and correct incidental and systematic errors both in routine analysis as well as in the field of research. The new manual describes all laboratory solutions, procedures and calculation formulas, and focuses on the definition of cryptozoospermia or azoospermia. A chapter concerning cryopreservation of spermatozoa has been newly integrated. The following overview presents the most important aspects of the updated WHO manual.
Centrum für Reproduktionsmedizin und Andrologie, WHO Kollaborationszentrum zur Erforschung der männlichen Fertilität, Ausbildungszentrum European Academy of Andrology (EAA), Universitätsklinikum Münster, Domagkstr. 11, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
In non-azoospermic patients with low semen volume (LSV), looking for partial retrograde ejaculation (PRE) by searching sperm in the postejaculatory urine (PEU) is required. The use of a retro-ejaculat...
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We investigated whether human semen parameters present circannual rhythm or not, and whether environmental factors exert on semen quality. This retrospective study used data of patients mainly from Re...
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between gravimetrically and volumetrically measured semen samples and to assess the impact of semen volume, density, and sperm count...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of cysteamine to the semen extender on post-thaw semen quality. A total of 30 ejaculates were collected from six bulls. Each ejaculate w...
In this prospective observational study the investigators will report on 20 male subjects with proven WHO-classification Zika infection. These subjects will be followed up for a maximum of...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate semen for changes following radiation treatment with proton beam radiotherapy alone. The semen samples will be compared for sperm count, sperm move...
The objective of this study is to determine if concentrations of maraviroc in semen exceed the 50% and 95% inhibitory concentrations of HIV during the dose interval. The secondary objecti...
The objective of this study is to determine if concentrations of raltegravir in semen exceed the 50% and 95% inhibitory concentrations of HIV during the dose interval. The secondary objec...
The primary research hypothesis is that microsurgical varicocelectomy will result in an increase in live birth in infertile couples where the male partner has a palpable varicocele and an ...
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
A condition characterized by the complete absence of SEMEN. This disorder should be differentiated from AZOOSPERMIA, absence of sperm in the semen.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.
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