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The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, Rb, plays a major role in the regulation of mammalian cell cycle progression. It has been shown that Rb function is essential for the proper modulation of G1/S transition and inactivation of Rb contributes to deregulated cell proliferation. Rb exerts its cell cycle regulatory functions mainly by targeting the E2F family of transcription factors and Rb has been shown to physically interact with E2Fs1, 2 and 3, repressing their transcriptional activity. Multiple genes involved in DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression are regulated by E2Fs, and Rb prevents their expression by inhibiting E2F activity, inducing growth arrest. It has been established that inactivation of Rb by phosphorylation, mutation, or by the interaction of viral oncoproteins lead to a release of the repression of E2F activity, facilitating cell cycle progression. Rb-mediated repression of E2F activity involves the recruitment of a variety of transcriptional co-repressors and chromatin remodeling proteins, including histone deacetylases, DNA methyl transferases and Brg1/Brm chromatin remodeling proteins. Inactivation of Rb by sequential phosphorylation events during cell cycle progression leads to a dissociation of these co-repressors from Rb, facilitating transcription. It has been found that small molecules that prevent the phosphorylation of Rb prevents the dissociation of certain co-repressors from Rb, especially Brg1, leading to the maintenance of Rb mediated transcriptional repression and cell cycle arrest. Such small molecules have anti-cancer activities and will also act as valuable probes to study chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta
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Part of a MESSENGER RNA molecule that undergoes a conformation change upon binding a specific metabolite or other small molecule thereby regulating the messenger RNA's transcription, post-transcriptional processing, transport, translation, or stability in response to varying levels of the metabolite or other small molecule.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
A family of Maf Transcription Factors that lack activation domains. Small Maf proteins function as transcriptional repressors or form heterodimeric complexes to serve as transcriptional coactivators. Small Maf proteins include MafF, MafG, and MafK.
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