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Both the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and its role in the control of pain and habituation to stress, as well as the significant analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects in animal studies, suggest the usefulness of cannabinoids in pain conditions. However, in human experimental or clinical trials, no convincing reduction of acute pain, which may be caused by a pronociceptive, ECS-triggered mechanism on the level of the spinal cord, has been demonstrated. In contrast, in chronic pain and (painful) spasticity, an increasing number of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have shown the efficacy of cannabinoids, which is combined with a narrow therapeutic index. Patients with unsatisfactory response to other methods of pain therapy and who were characterized by failed stress adaptation particularly benefited from treatment with cannabinoids. None of the attempts to overcome the disadvantage of the narrow therapeutic index, either by changing the route of application or by formulating balanced cannabinoid preparations, have resulted in a major breakthrough. Therefore, different methods of administration and other types of cannabinoids, such as endocannabinoid modulators, should be tested in future trials.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain Clinic, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
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Several randomized trials have demonstrated potential benefit of cannabis derivatives in the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. These provide class 1 and 2 evidence for cannabi...
Pain following stroke is commonly reported but often incompletely managed, which prevents optimal recovery. This is in part due to the esoteric nature of post-stroke pain and its limited presence in c...
Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is currently used to treat a variety of painful disorders, including painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). However, BTA is not consistently effective in all ...
Empathic concern has traditionally been conceived of as a spontaneous reaction to others experiencing pain or distress. As such, the potential role of more deliberate control over empathic responses h...
This randomized controlled trial found no effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide as add-on-therapy on neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal co...
This is a 10-week, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial to investigate the effect of Cannabis Based Medicine Extract (Sativex) on patterns of brain activation asso...
Some people with bipolar disorder who use cannabis (marijuana) claim that it eases the symptoms of depression and mania. There are many chemicals (called cannabinoids) found in cannabis bu...
The purpose of this study is to explore the pain-reieiving effects and safety of tramadol HCl/acetaminophen as compared to placebo in patients experiencing painful diabetic neuropathy. Tre...
The purpose of this study is to test the effects of cannabinoids on pain response using a variety of human experimental pain models.
Background: The marijuana plant Cannabis has been used for centuries in the medicinal treatment of many disorders and is still the subject of medical research and public debate. Cannabino...
A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
Idiopathic painful nonsuppurative swellings of one or more costal cartilages, especially of the second rib. The anterior chest pain may mimic that of coronary artery disease. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”. Some illnesses can be excruci...