Differential Effects of Vitamin K1 on AFP and DCP Levels in Patients with Unresectable HCC and in HCC Cell Lines.
Summary of "Differential Effects of Vitamin K1 on AFP and DCP Levels in Patients with Unresectable HCC and in HCC Cell Lines."
DCP is a useful HCC tumor marker, which reflects a defect in vitamin K metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin K treatment of HCC patients might suppress this marker and possibly AFP also. EXPERIMENTAL
HCC patients who had both elevated AFP and DCP were included. A phase I cohort was treated with escalating vitamin K1 intravenous weekly doses and a 27-patient phase II cohort was then treated with a fixed oral daily dose.
A maximum tolerated dose was not reached up to 100-fold the normal vitamin K1 dose. No toxicities were found up to 1,000 mg/infusion. In the phase II cohort, 93% of patients had tumor marker responses by decreased DCP levels, but only 22% had responses by decreased AFP levels. CT scans showed 11% of patients had PRs, 59% had stable tumors and 29.6% had tumor progression. Mechanism studies showed that vitamin K1 induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun and caspase-mediated apoptosis.
Vitamin K1 was non-toxic at high doses, strongly inhibited plasma DCP levels, but weakly suppressed AFP levels. The results provide evidence that the two tumor markers are not directly linked and that DCP levels may not reflect HCC cell growth, as DCP levels were decreased in patients without AFP change, and were suppressed in vitro at 1% of the vitamin K1 concentration needed to inhibit AFP.
Department of Medical Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Digestive diseases and sciences
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21188521
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-010-1521-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Vitamin A Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Cell Migration Inhibition
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Vitamin D Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
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