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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules functioning to modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and playing an important role in many developmental and physiological processes. Ten thousand miRNAs have been discovered in various organisms. Although considerable progress has been made in computational methodology to identify miRNA targets, most predicted miRNA targets may be false positive. Due to the lack of effective tools to identify miRNA targets, the study of miRNAs is seriously retarded. In recent years, some molecular cloning strategies of miRNA targets have been developed, including RT-PCR using miRNAs as endogenous primers, labeled miRNA pull-down assay (LAMP) and RNA ligase-mediated amplification of cDNA end (RLM-RACE). The identified miRNA targets should be further validated via effects of miRNA alteration on the target protein levels and bioactivity. This review summarizes advances in strategies to identify miRNA targets and methods by which miRNA targets are validated.
Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130062, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: New biotechnology
Antibody therapeutics against different target antigens are widely used in the treatment of different malignancies including ovarian carcinomas, but this disease still requires more effective agents. ...
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Molecular analysis of the atheroma plaque. Screening for a novel biomarker of carotid status.
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An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.
Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to cre...