Cardiovascular protection afforded by caloric restriction: Essential role of nitric oxide synthase.
Summary of "Cardiovascular protection afforded by caloric restriction: Essential role of nitric oxide synthase."
Caloric restriction is an established intervention, of which anti-aging effects are scientifically proven. It has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system: vascular protection, improvement of myocardial ischemic tolerance and retardation of cardiac senescence. First, increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies supports the concept that "a man is as old as his arteries". Caloric restriction could prevent the progression of atherosclerosis and vascular aging through direct and indirect mechanisms. Second, the hearts of senescent animals are more susceptible to ischemia than those of young animals. We demonstrated that short-term and prolonged caloric restriction confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in young and aged rodents. Furthermore, we showed that the increase in circulating adiponectin levels and subsequent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase are necessary for the cardioprotection afforded by short-term caloric restriction. In contrast, the mechanisms by which prolonged caloric restriction confers cardioprotection seem more complicated. Adiponectin, nitric oxide synthase and sirtuin may form a network of cardiovascular protection during caloric restriction. Recently, by using genetically engineered mice, we found that, in addition to endothelial nitric oxide synthase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase plays an essential role in the development of cardioprotection afforded by prolonged caloric restriction. Third, long-term caloric restriction has cardiac-specific effects that attenuate the age-associated impairment seen in left ventricular diastolic function. It is possible that long-term caloric restriction partially retards cardiac senescence by attenuating oxidative damage in the aged heart. Overall, we strongly believe that caloric restriction could reduce morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular events in humans. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2011; 11: ••-••.
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Geriatrics & gerontology international
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199236
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2010.00675.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Nitric Oxide Donors
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type Ii
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
Optical Restriction Mapping
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
Dna Restriction-modification Enzymes
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
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