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SUMMARYAn unlinked anonymous survey was conducted to measure the prevalence of selected markers for HIV, hepatitis B and C infection in recruits to the UK Armed Forces to inform future screening and hepatitis B vaccination policies. During 2007, nearly 14 000 left-over samples taken from new recruits for blood typing were collected, unlinked from identifiers and anonymously tested for HIV, hepatitis C and current and past cleared hepatitis B infection. Overall, serological evidence of HIV and hepatitis C was found in 0Â·06% and 0Â·06% of recruits, respectively. Evidence of past cleared and current hepatitis B infection was found in 3Â·63% and 0Â·37% of recruits, respectively. Overall, prevalence rates were broadly consistent with UK population estimates of infection. However, HIV and hepatitis B prevalence was higher in recruits of African origin than in those from the UK (P<0Â·0001). Screening for these infections is an option that could be considered for those entering Services from high-prevalence countries.
Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency Colindale, London, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Epidemiology and infection
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
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