Layers of the abdominal wall: anatomical investigation of subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia.
Summary of "Layers of the abdominal wall: anatomical investigation of subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia."
In recent times new surgical approaches have been developed, in which subcutaneous tissue is the primary object, such as flaps and fat removal techniques, but different descriptions and abundance of terminology persist in Literature about this tissue. AIM AND
In order to investigate the structure of abdominal subcutaneous tissue, macroscopic and microscopic analyses of its layers were performed in 10 fresh cadavers. Results were compared with in vivo CT images of the abdomen of 10 subjects.
The subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen comprises three layers: a superficial adipose layer (SAT), a membranous layer, and a deep adipose layer (DAT). The SAT presented fibrous septa that defined polygonal-oval lobes of fat cells with a mean circularity factor of 0.856 ± 0.113. The membranous layer is a continuous fibrous membrane rich in elastic fibers with a mean thickness of 847.4 ± 295 μm. In the DAT the fibrous septa were predominantly obliquely-horizontally oriented, defining large, flat, polygonal lobes of fat cells (circularity factor: mean 0.473 ± 0.07). The CT scans confirm these findings, showing a variation of the thickness of the SAT, DAT and membranous layer according with the subjects and with the regions.
The distinction of SAT and DAT and their anatomic differences are key elements in modern approaches to liposuction. The membranous layer appears to be also a dissection plane which merits further attention. According with the revision of Literature, the Authors propose that the term "superficial fascia" should only be used as a synonym for the membranous layer.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212951
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-010-0772-8
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.
A groin hernia occurring inferior to the inguinal ligament and medial to the FEMORAL VEIN and FEMORAL ARTERY. The femoral hernia sac has a small neck but may enlarge considerably when it enters the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. It is caused by defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL.