Respiratory events and obstructive sleep apnea in children with achondroplasia: investigation and treatment outcomes.
Summary of "Respiratory events and obstructive sleep apnea in children with achondroplasia: investigation and treatment outcomes."
We report aspects of sleep-disordered breathing in a cohort of achondroplastic children who attended our hospital.
A retrospective chart review was conducted for a 15-year period to further evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.
A review of the medical records was undertaken for 46 children (63%, mean age 3.9 years) with achondroplasia that had overnight polysomnography. Among them, 25 (54.3%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For 19 out of 46 patients (follow-up rate, 41.3%) with a mean follow-up of 31.3 months (range, 3 month to 11 years), 13 had undergone adenotonsillectomy, while nine were treated with continuous positive airway pressure.
Prospective evaluation of our clinic population confirms a high incidence of SDB in achondroplastic children. OSA has been linked to raise intracranial pressure as well as neurocognitive deficits in children and we hypothesize that associations between neurological and respiratory abnormalities in this disorder are a consequence of the early onset of associated respiratory, rather than the neurological complications.
Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225355
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-010-0432-6
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
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